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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Dec 26, 2018 1:22 pm

Irkut Corporation completed construction of the third MC-21-300 flight test aircraft


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Irkut Corporation (a UAC member) completed construction of the third MC-21-300, intended for flight tests. On December 25, the aircraft was transferred from the final assembly shop to the flight test unit of Irkutsk aviation plant - a branch of Irkut Corporation.

Testing results of the first MC-21-300 aircraft passing certification tests were taken into account in the production of the new aircraft.

The components and units of the fourth flight test aircraft are being assembled at the Irkutsk Aviation Plant.

Currently, two MC-21-300 aircraft are taking part in flight certification tests at the airfield of Flight Test Institute named after M.M. Gromov.

The aircraft for static testing is tested in Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). In December, the MC-21-300 aircraft fuselage was delivered here, which, after assembling the airframe, will join endurance tests.

President of UAC and Irkut Corporation Yuri Slusar said: “In 2018 flight and ground certification tests of aircraft prototype confirmed the main design solutions. UAC enterprises have begun to manufacture parts and units of MC-21-300 aircraft intended for customer’s delivery. Joining to the flight tests of new aircraft and production intensification of mass-produced airplanes are the main tasks of 2019. ”

“We can confidently say that 2018 turned out to be productive for the aircraft industry. Construction of the new aircraft and certification tests of the first aircraft confirm that the MC-21 program is developing steadily. As part of the program, a deep modernization of aircraft manufacturing enterprises was carried out, new high-tech companies were created, an environment for development of promising civil aviation projects was formed, ” – mentioned Denis Manturov, Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation.
https://www.uacrussia.ru/en/press-cente ... -ispytaniy

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parapente
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Dec 26, 2018 2:37 pm

The 2 variants seem to have slightly odd sizes but I assume they are expecting them to be v close to 150 and 200 pax depending on class'.
Otherwise it's a highly impressive design.Over time it may give western manufacturers a run for their money. 'Bout time really.
Wish them all the best.The wider aisle would be particularly advantageous for a larger (longer) variant closer to the A321neo.But no idea how much performance they have kept up their sleve.Probably some.
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Dec 27, 2018 6:10 am

parapente wrote:
The 2 variants seem to have slightly odd sizes but I assume they are expecting them to be v close to 150 and 200 pax depending on class'.
Otherwise it's a highly impressive design.Over time it may give western manufacturers a run for their money. 'Bout time really.
Wish them all the best.The wider aisle would be particularly advantageous for a larger (longer) variant closer to the A321neo.But no idea how much performance they have kept up their sleve.Probably some.


Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Tue Feb 19, 2019 2:20 pm

Production is officially delayed one year due to US sanctions, yikes! News in spanish

https://mundo.sputniknews.com/amp/tecno ... ia-rostec/
 
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LaunchDetected
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Feb 21, 2019 12:41 pm

https://www.compositesworld.com/news/mc ... -sanctions

"The Russian airliner schedule will reportedly be delayed until 2021 as U.S. sanctions have interrupted the supply of composite materials for the aircraft."

"The sanctions are said to have prevented Hexcel (Stamford, Conn., U.S.) and Toray (Tokyo, Japan) from supplying composite materials for the aircraft and will likely cause disruption at the aircraft’s final assembly site."

Wow that's hard. A good incentive to develop domestic supply chain.
Caravelle lover
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Mar 16, 2019 7:17 am

Third test airframe(MC-0004) just took off today. Congrats to UAC:

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tu204
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Mar 16, 2019 8:11 am

Anyone know which aircraft will feature the PD-14 engines?
I do not dream about movie stars, they must dream about me for I am real and they are not. - Alexander Popov
 
Solidus
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Mar 16, 2019 11:29 am

tu204 wrote:
Anyone know which aircraft will feature the PD-14 engines?


4-th flying as far I read, based on serial line
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 12:56 am

Solidus wrote:
tu204 wrote:
Anyone know which aircraft will feature the PD-14 engines?


4-th flying as far I read, based on serial line


That's about right, and the first serial production plane will also feature the PD-14.
 
Solidus
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 5:04 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
Solidus wrote:
tu204 wrote:
Anyone know which aircraft will feature the PD-14 engines?


4-th flying as far I read, based on serial line


That's about right, and the first serial production plane will also feature the PD-14.


Engine will be swapped on first production plane from PW to PD?
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 12:45 pm

Solidus wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
Solidus wrote:

4-th flying as far I read, based on serial line


That's about right, and the first serial production plane will also feature the PD-14.


Engine will be swapped on first production plane from PW to PD?


Actually the first 4 frames will be PW powered, and the first production version will be PD-14 powered in order to accelerate certification:

http://www.rusaviainsider.com/additiona ... n-engines/
 
Solidus
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 12:51 pm

Wayfarer515 wrote:
Solidus wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:

That's about right, and the first serial production plane will also feature the PD-14.


Engine will be swapped on first production plane from PW to PD?


Actually the first 4 frames will be PW powered, and the first production version will be PD-14 powered in order to accelerate certification:

http://www.rusaviainsider.com/additiona ... n-engines/


The first delivered to the customer will be same aircraft with engine swapped back to PW?
 
phugoid1982
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 2:19 pm

Great looking plane. That TSAGI designed wing is amazing. They had the largest wind tunnel in the world for the longest time. I find it annoying with all the politics, few people are aware of just how innovative this plane is especially with the out of autoclave manufacturing. Not to deviate from this thread, but I read with all the 737MAX issues Aeroflot's LCC Pobeda is being nudged to buy the MC-21 although the issue is political as well. I hope they can tweak the PD-14 to get the fuel burn down but I hope its reliability at least is favorable compared to its contemporaries. Also, is there still any intention to revert back to the Yak-242 name?
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 8:17 pm

phugoid1982 wrote:
Great looking plane. That TSAGI designed wing is amazing. They had the largest wind tunnel in the world for the longest time. I find it annoying with all the politics, few people are aware of just how innovative this plane is especially with the out of autoclave manufacturing. Not to deviate from this thread, but I read with all the 737MAX issues Aeroflot's LCC Pobeda is being nudged to buy the MC-21 although the issue is political as well. I hope they can tweak the PD-14 to get the fuel burn down but I hope its reliability at least is favorable compared to its contemporaries. Also, is there still any intention to revert back to the Yak-242 name?
phugoid1982 wrote:
Great looking plane. That TSAGI designed wing is amazing. They had the largest wind tunnel in the world for the longest time. I find it annoying with all the politics, few people are aware of just how innovative this plane is especially with the out of autoclave manufacturing. Not to deviate from this thread, but I read with all the 737MAX issues Aeroflot's LCC Pobeda is being nudged to buy the MC-21 although the issue is political as well. I hope they can tweak the PD-14 to get the fuel burn down but I hope its reliability at least is favorable compared to its contemporaries. Also, is there still any intention to revert back to the Yak-242 name?
Solidus wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
Solidus wrote:



Engine will be swapped on first production plane from PW to PD?


Actually the first 4 frames will be PW powered, and the first production version will be PD-14 powered in order to accelerate certification:

http://www.rusaviainsider.com/additiona ... n-engines/


The first delivered to the customer will be same aircraft with engine swapped back to PW?


No, it has been decided that MC-21 designation will remain in use and

No, AFAIK this PD-14 powered airframe will be used for testing purposes in order to speed up certification, and later handed over to Iraero which is the launch customer for the PD-14 version of the MC-21.
 
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lightsaber
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Mar 17, 2019 9:20 pm

Wayfarer515 wrote:
phugoid1982 wrote:
Great looking plane. That TSAGI designed wing is amazing. They had the largest wind tunnel in the world for the longest time. I find it annoying with all the politics, few people are aware of just how innovative this plane is especially with the out of autoclave manufacturing. Not to deviate from this thread, but I read with all the 737MAX issues Aeroflot's LCC Pobeda is being nudged to buy the MC-21 although the issue is political as well. I hope they can tweak the PD-14 to get the fuel burn down but I hope its reliability at least is favorable compared to its contemporaries. Also, is there still any intention to revert back to the Yak-242 name?
phugoid1982 wrote:
Great looking plane. That TSAGI designed wing is amazing. They had the largest wind tunnel in the world for the longest time. I find it annoying with all the politics, few people are aware of just how innovative this plane is especially with the out of autoclave manufacturing. Not to deviate from this thread, but I read with all the 737MAX issues Aeroflot's LCC Pobeda is being nudged to buy the MC-21 although the issue is political as well. I hope they can tweak the PD-14 to get the fuel burn down but I hope its reliability at least is favorable compared to its contemporaries. Also, is there still any intention to revert back to the Yak-242 name?
Solidus wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:

Actually the first 4 frames will be PW powered, and the first production version will be PD-14 powered in order to accelerate certification:

http://www.rusaviainsider.com/additiona ... n-engines/


The first delivered to the customer will be same aircraft with engine swapped back to PW?


No, it has been decided that MC-21 designation will remain in use and

No, AFAIK this PD-14 powered airframe will be used for testing purposes in order to speed up certification, and later handed over to Iraero which is the launch customer for the PD-14 version of the MC-21.

More than likely, the first production airframe is heavy (they always are). Better to sell at a discount and mask the flub. Nothing on Irkut, just my normal cynicism driven by experience.

Lightsaber
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filipinoavgeek
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 12:11 am

So in the future, all planes will have the Russian engines, or operators will have a choice of PW or PD?
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ikolkyo
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 12:13 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
parapente wrote:
The 2 variants seem to have slightly odd sizes but I assume they are expecting them to be v close to 150 and 200 pax depending on class'.
Otherwise it's a highly impressive design.Over time it may give western manufacturers a run for their money. 'Bout time really.
Wish them all the best.The wider aisle would be particularly advantageous for a larger (longer) variant closer to the A321neo.But no idea how much performance they have kept up their sleve.Probably some.


Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 12:57 am

ikolkyo wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
parapente wrote:
The 2 variants seem to have slightly odd sizes but I assume they are expecting them to be v close to 150 and 200 pax depending on class'.
Otherwise it's a highly impressive design.Over time it may give western manufacturers a run for their money. 'Bout time really.
Wish them all the best.The wider aisle would be particularly advantageous for a larger (longer) variant closer to the A321neo.But no idea how much performance they have kept up their sleve.Probably some.


Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians(same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.
 
Waterbomber2
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 1:03 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
ikolkyo wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:

Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also somewhat overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability, Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


If they can beat the GTF in reliability and acquisition cost, there will be a market for the PD-14 even at higher fuel burn.
Iran alone could be a 3-digit market.
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 1:39 am

Waterbomber2 wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
ikolkyo wrote:

Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also somewhat overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability, Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


If they can beat the GTF in reliability and acquisition cost, there will be a market for the PD-14 even at higher fuel burn.
Iran alone could be a 3-digit market.


The catch here is that currently it has around 142 items which are manufactured overseas, not knowing their country of origin my guess is that they could be subject to sanctions in its current state, they are already working with local suppliers to substitute them but of course this will take time and money. BTW, the list price for the PD-14 is about 5.5M so I think their price is very competitive.
 
downdata
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Mar 18, 2019 4:45 am

LaunchDetected wrote:
https://www.compositesworld.com/news/mc-21-airliner-faces-one-year-delay-due-to-us-sanctions

"The Russian airliner schedule will reportedly be delayed until 2021 as U.S. sanctions have interrupted the supply of composite materials for the aircraft."

"The sanctions are said to have prevented Hexcel (Stamford, Conn., U.S.) and Toray (Tokyo, Japan) from supplying composite materials for the aircraft and will likely cause disruption at the aircraft’s final assembly site."

Wow that's hard. A good incentive to develop domestic supply chain.


Not if you dont have the technology... IIRC there are only 4-5 companies in the world that can produce aerospace grade carbon fibre composities at an acceptable cost - and they are all western / western aligned
 
tu204
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Tue Mar 19, 2019 5:57 am

downdata wrote:
LaunchDetected wrote:
https://www.compositesworld.com/news/mc-21-airliner-faces-one-year-delay-due-to-us-sanctions

"The Russian airliner schedule will reportedly be delayed until 2021 as U.S. sanctions have interrupted the supply of composite materials for the aircraft."

"The sanctions are said to have prevented Hexcel (Stamford, Conn., U.S.) and Toray (Tokyo, Japan) from supplying composite materials for the aircraft and will likely cause disruption at the aircraft’s final assembly site."

Wow that's hard. A good incentive to develop domestic supply chain.


Not if you dont have the technology... IIRC there are only 4-5 companies in the world that can produce aerospace grade carbon fibre composities at an acceptable cost - and they are all western / western aligned


That's what I don't get here. I am no specialist in composite materials. But from what we have all read here there are some unique abd "firsts" in the way that the aircraft is being built, regarding composites.

So can anyone shed any light on what is unique and what of this is outsourced from foreign companies?
I do not dream about movie stars, they must dream about me for I am real and they are not. - Alexander Popov
 
tu204
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Tue Mar 19, 2019 6:05 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
ikolkyo wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:

Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians(same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


Wayfarer, are you certain? It doesn't seem realistic that they would come out with a product with similar efficiency of something built 30 years ago considering all the advances in technology during this time.
I do not dream about movie stars, they must dream about me for I am real and they are not. - Alexander Popov
 
phugoid1982
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Tue Mar 19, 2019 3:09 pm

tu204 wrote:
downdata wrote:
LaunchDetected wrote:
https://www.compositesworld.com/news/mc-21-airliner-faces-one-year-delay-due-to-us-sanctions

"The Russian airliner schedule will reportedly be delayed until 2021 as U.S. sanctions have interrupted the supply of composite materials for the aircraft."

"The sanctions are said to have prevented Hexcel (Stamford, Conn., U.S.) and Toray (Tokyo, Japan) from supplying composite materials for the aircraft and will likely cause disruption at the aircraft’s final assembly site."

Wow that's hard. A good incentive to develop domestic supply chain.


Not if you dont have the technology... IIRC there are only 4-5 companies in the world that can produce aerospace grade carbon fibre composities at an acceptable cost - and they are all western / western aligned


That's what I don't get here. I am no specialist in composite materials. But from what we have all read here there are some unique abd "firsts" in the way that the aircraft is being built, regarding composites.

So can anyone shed any light on what is unique and what of this is outsourced from foreign companies?


Interesting article on the auto of autoclave manufacturing process for the MC-21 wing.

https://www.compositesworld.com/article ... tes-future\
 
Pentaprism
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Tue Mar 19, 2019 11:40 pm

I find it interesting that the US has decided to wave their Sanctions Wand in the direction of the MC21 to disrupt it's production. The MC21 has plenty of US components so I would have expected them to figure it was in their interests to see the MC-21's go into production as soon as possible. But of course this Aircraft does directly compete with Boeing's 737 so they must have decided the risk of losing 737 sales to the MC21 outweighed the benefits of supplying US components to the program.

Dangerous game the US is playing because Manufacturers all over the world will note the ability of the US to disrupt their Programs and think long and hard about whether they can trust the US not to do this to them. It is an issue Companies not only in Aviation and not only in Russia will be grappling with.
 
phugoid1982
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Mar 20, 2019 2:03 pm

Pentaprism wrote:
I find it interesting that the US has decided to wave their Sanctions Wand in the direction of the MC21 to disrupt it's production. The MC21 has plenty of US components so I would have expected them to figure it was in their interests to see the MC-21's go into production as soon as possible. But of course this Aircraft does directly compete with Boeing's 737 so they must have decided the risk of losing 737 sales to the MC21 outweighed the benefits of supplying US components to the program.

Dangerous game the US is playing because Manufacturers all over the world will note the ability of the US to disrupt their Programs and think long and hard about whether they can trust the US not to do this to them. It is an issue Companies not only in Aviation and not only in Russia will be grappling with.


That was my thought itself. I've always found this sanctions ridiculous especially like you said when American jobs are at stake in supplying components for the MC-21. As for sales, I don't think the MC-21 is expected to make much of a dent although if I had my wish the 737MAX would be out to pasture and the MC-21 would be able to grab a larger share of the market and potentially penetrate the US market. I don't even think Irkut are even looking for FAA certification. I find it sad that a 50 year old design with legacy technology and grandfathered in "new technology" is more desirable than a clean sheet state of the art design like the MC-21 mostly because of name recognition.

The tactics employed by American companies and Boeing are nothing new nor surprising. Remember the C-series situation? Competition is only good insofar it allows them to have an advantage but once someone else starts creeping up and forcing them to up their game they whine. Maybe irkut should offer to setup a manufacturing plant somewhere in the US midwest that has been neglected job wise and that will force the current administration that has been hell bent on appealing to those voters to restore jobs to consider lifting these sanctions. Of course, I'm sure Boeing will have a field day with this and with the anti-Russia sentiment so prevalent now, many people would probably not want to work for a Russian company.
 
Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Mar 21, 2019 5:43 am

tu204 wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
ikolkyo wrote:

Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians(same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


Wayfarer, are you certain? It doesn't seem realistic that they would come out with a product with similar efficiency of something built 30 years ago considering all the advances in technology during this time.


Well, of course you won't get any official statement from United Engine Corp. accepting any of this as true, but this was shared by someone very close to the test bed crew of the IL-76LL-PD14, but as I said before this was expected by them at that very specific point of the engine development program, I do hope they have already improved the fuel efficiency by now.
 
Pentaprism
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Mar 21, 2019 12:43 pm

That was my thought itself. I've always found this sanctions ridiculous especially like you said when American jobs are at stake in supplying components for the MC-21. As for sales, I don't think the MC-21 is expected to make much of a dent although if I had my wish the 737MAX would be out to pasture and the MC-21 would be able to grab a larger share of the market and potentially penetrate the US market. I don't even think Irkut are even looking for FAA certification. I find it sad that a 50 year old design with legacy technology and grandfathered in "new technology" is more desirable than a clean sheet state of the art design like the MC-21 mostly because of name recognition.


There is no way UAC should even try to sell the MC-21 to North American or Western European Airlines, the politics are stacked against them. But they don't need to. Their product is fine they just need to learn how to support it - i.e manufacture the necessary number of spares for each frame they sell and make them available to the operators. If they do this I believe the product will prove itself and be able to easily compete with the 737 in Latin American, Asian, Middle East, African and CIS markets.

The tactics employed by American companies and Boeing are nothing new nor surprising. Remember the C-series situation? Competition is only good insofar it allows them to have an advantage but once someone else starts creeping up and forcing them to up their game they whine. Maybe irkut should offer to setup a manufacturing plant somewhere in the US midwest that has been neglected job wise and that will force the current administration that has been hell bent on appealing to those voters to restore jobs to consider lifting these sanctions. Of course, I'm sure Boeing will have a field day with this and with the anti-Russia sentiment so prevalent now, many people would probably not want to work for a Russian company.


It would certainly be amusing to hear Mr Trump explain why Irkut couldn't set up a factory in the US and employ US workers :)
 
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alberchico
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Mar 21, 2019 7:13 pm

Hi all. Just 2 quick questions:
1. I read in an article that Irkut is considering switching out the composites for traditional metal materials. Won't that incur a substantial weight penalty ?

2.How long could it take the Russian to develop indigenous composite materials ?
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Wayfarer515
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Mar 22, 2019 5:06 am

alberchico wrote:
Hi all. Just 2 quick questions:
1. I read in an article that Irkut is considering switching out the composites for traditional metal materials. Won't that incur a substantial weight penalty ?

2.How long could it take the Russian to develop indigenous composite materials ?


1. Not happening.
2. They do have indigenous providers, the SU-35 uses a lot of composite in its wings already, the problem is producing it in mass for the MC-21 requires lots of investment, time and of course increases the overall cost of the project, but they will do it that way since they don't have other choice or do they?
 
Amiga500
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Mar 22, 2019 9:16 am

Boeing should probably buy a license to manufacture the MC-21 design.

Would solve an awful lot of their current problems.
 
Antonkam
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Mar 23, 2019 10:20 am

Russian carbon fiber began to develop in 2014, in parallel with the purchase of raw materials abroad. At that time, we did not have similar characteristics of the material. But now it is made of tested parts for MS-21 from Russian carbon fiber and resin. The link below:

For MS-21 found a backup way out of the situation
UAC creates imponents in case of new sanctions
Newspaper "Kommersant" №51 from 23.03.2009, p. 1
Yesterday, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov announced the successful development of Russian samples of parts of the center wing and the wing caisson of composites for the MS-21 aircraft. Previously, they were supplied from abroad, but after the introduction of us sanctions against "AeroComposite" supplies stopped. As it became known“”, in order to hedge risks, the United aircraft Corporation (UAC) will invest about 35 billion rubles for the purchase abroad of other aircraft systems, used in MS-21, but also subject to import substitution. A number of sources of Kommersant believe that such an "insurance reserve" will have to be purchased in the future, since it is extremely problematic to replace all aircraft systems so quickly.

Yuri Borisov told about the success of import substitution of foreign composite materials used to create the "black wing" of the MS-21, following his visit to the Ulyanovsk enterprise "AeroComposite". "We saw the ready-made elements of the design of the aircraft-the center wing and the wing caisson, made without the use of American materials. Our confidence (in the implementation of the project.- "Kommersant") is based on real samples that have confirmed their characteristics," he said, adding that it will not be necessary to redesign the design of the MS— 21 wing due to the replacement of materials.

Problems with the supply of foreign composites appeared in September 2018, in respect of JSC "AeroComposite" (included in UAC) and JSC "ORPE "Technologiya" name Romashina" (included in "rostec") was introduced to US sanctions. As a high-ranking source of Kommersant in the aviation industry says, then two scenarios were worked out:" moderately negative "and"negative". In the first case, the program for the production of wings for MS-21 was shifted by nine months-a year (subject to successful tests of domestic composites), in the second — by one and a half to two years (if necessary, redesign of the wing's power structure). According to him," AeroComposite "has completed testing of domestic prepregs (dry carbon tape and binder), which are used in the manufacture of the wing and center wing MS-21, and onpp" Technology " is working to determine the physical and mechanical properties of prepregs on glass and carbon fabric used in the manufacture of keel caissons and stabilizers.

"This work should be completed in the first quarter of 2019, after which the stage of General and special qualification of the selected materials and development of production technologies will come, "the interlocutor of Kommersant added. The total cost of additional costs for this program is estimated at 2.7 billion rubles. The completion of the program of import substitution of composites is planned for the end of 2020, and in parallel will be the basic certification of MS-21.

Both the government and the industry previously claimed that the deployment of serial production of the new liner at the facilities of the Irkutsk aircraft plant (part of the Irkut Corporation) will take place in 2021 (on March 16, the third MS-21 joined the flight test program). In order not to disrupt the already established deadlines, aircraft manufacturers have taken another protective action, says the source of “Kommersant” in the aviation industry. According to him, in an optimistic scenario, from 2021 it will be possible to start delivery to customers of the MS-21 with an "import-substituted" wing and tail, but equipped with a number of foreign aircraft systems, which are not yet subject to restrictive measures. "They also fell under the import substitution program, which is stretched for several years," he says.— During this time, anything can happen: the same sanctions will expand. Therefore, the option of creating a so-called insurance stock of foreign components was proposed." According to him, at the end of 2018, contracts were signed for five serial aircraft kits. But to reduce the risk of disrupting the timing of deliveries of MS-21 oak decided to contract another 20 sets. "This, in any case, will provide the possibility of serial production of aircraft for approximately two and a half years,"— says a high-ranking source of Kommersant in the aviation industry. According to him, the creation of an "insurance reserve" will cost more than 35 billion rubles, of which slightly less than 5 billion rubles should be allocated in 2019, 16.4 billion-in 2020 and 14 billion-in 2021.

One of the sources of Kommersant in the aviation industry claims that it is "extremely problematic" to carry out import substitution of aircraft systems for three years, so the UAC, apparently, will have to extend the period of creation of the insurance reserve for a few more years. In UAC told that at the moment the Corporation signed firm contracts for the supply of 175 units of MS-21. Of these, 85 planes ordered a subsidiary of Rostec, OOO "Avia capital services LLC" (50 of them are intended for "Aeroflot"), 50 — "Ilyushin Finans Ko", 30 — "VEB-Leasing", 10 — "Iraero".

The head of Infomost Boris Rybak believes that the replacement of the material in the design of the aircraft, even in the absence of the need to redesign the wing, will require new static and cyclic tests at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI) and certification on the basis of the results, which on average should take one and a half to two years. "With hard work, developers may well have time to complete the tests by the beginning of 2021," the expert says.
https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3922454
 
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mfranjic
Posts: 240
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Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Apr 06, 2019 7:31 pm

Wayfarer515 wrote:

ikolkyo wrote:

Wayfarer515 wrote:

Rumor has it they are very close to promised performance even with some overweight in the test frames, so yes they can still get some better numbers, at least with the P&W engines. The PD-14 is said to currently have a similar fuel burn to the early PS90A.


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians (same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


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tu204 wrote:

Wayfarer515 wrote:

ikolkyo wrote:

Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians(same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


Wayfarer, are you certain? It doesn't seem realistic that they would come out with a product with similar efficiency of something built 30 years ago considering all the advances in technology during this time.


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At this stage of the engine’s testing, the different hardware and software settings are implemented with it, resulting in a somewhat different and oscillating output data. To draw the concrete conclusions from them, in this moment, it would be a little hasty, superficial, frivolous and certainly unprofessional. Much more than the reliable informations these could be just speculations, rumors and inveracity, and that don’t have too much in common with the real facts. Once the engine enters the commercial use, the real data will slowly become available and then it will be possible to make a concrete and accurate conclusions and draw the comparisons with the competition manufacturer’s engine, Image.PW1431G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,0:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1, rated at 140,44 kN / 14.321 kgf / 31.572 lbf, but also with the competiton aircraft:
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Image.Image.A320neo aircraft family, powered by Image.PW1100G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,5:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1 or Image.LEAP-1A, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 78,0 in / 1.981,2 mm; BPR: 11,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–7LPT), OPR: 40,0:1;
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Image.Image.737 MAX aircraft, powered by Image.LEAP-1B, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 69,4 in / 1.762,8 mm; BPR: 9,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–5LPT), OPR: 43,68:1;
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Image.Image.C919 aircraft, powered by AVIC ACAE.CJ-1000A, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 76,8 in / 1.950,7 mm; BPR: >9,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+ 3LPC– 10HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: ~40,0:1 or Image.LEAP-1C, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 77,0 in / 1.955,8 mm; BPR: 11,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–7LPT), OPR: 40,0:1.
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Until then, I suggest a bit of restraint and patience. Only my humble opinion …
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….Image
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….Image
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Images above: The comparison between the fuel consumption of the different generations of the Russian turbofan engines: Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" D-30KP ( Д-30КП ), Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PS-90A-76 ( ПС-90А-76 ) and Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14M ( ПД-14М )
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The development of the D-30KP engine was started by the OJSC "Perm Engine Company" ( ОАО "Пермский Моторный Завод" ), now JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), in 1968, and in 1972 it was put in the serial production at JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ), which later received all the rights to repair it and further improve it. Since 1981 in the production is an improved version of the engine, D-30KP-2, with the increased reliability, retaining the propulsion characteristics at elevated ambient temperatures. Nowadays, the D-30KP-2, twin-shaft, non-afterburning, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 2,24:1; eng. architecture: 3F–11HPC〧2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 20,1:1, rated at 117,68 kN / 12.000 kgf / 26.455 lbf, is produced by Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) company.
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During the work on the upgrading of the D-30KP engine, that was carried out since the late 1970s in JSC "Rybinsk Motors", an improved version of the engine, D-30KP-30, was proposed, with a thrust of 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf, and later on it was planned to create another version, D-30KP-30-17, with a thrust of 166,71 kN / 17.000 kgf / 37.479 lbf. However, the priority for a number, mainly political, reasons was given to the project of a new OJSC "Perm Engine Company" D-90A engine (today known as PS-90A). The works on the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" D-30KP-30 engine, as well as on those Image.Kuznetsov’s NK-56 and NK-64 engines, were suspended. Later, in the 1990s, the project of the D-30KP-14-76 engine with a thrust of 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf was created in Rybinsk, and some of the solutions applied in its design were the basis of the D-30KP-3 ‘Burlak’, twin-shaft, medium-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 65,4 in / 1.662,0 mm; BPR: 3,62:1; eng. architecture: 1F+1LPC–11HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 17,99:1, rated at 127,49 kN / 13.000 kgf / 28.660 lbf. The essence of the modernization of the ‘Burlak’ engine was in replacing the three-stage low-pressure compressor (fan) with a single-stage wide-chord fan and single-stage LPC and by increasing the bypass ratio from 2,24 to 3,62. The use of the high-efficiency low-noise fan in the combination with the increased bypass ratio, using a modified low-emission combustion chamber and special sound-absorbing structures allowed to reduce the specific fuel consumption by 10-11 %, increase the resource by almost twice and ensure that the engine characteristics comply with the ICAO Chapter 4 for noise and emission standards. The works on it were conducted by JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ) since mid-2003. JSC NPO "Saturn" company was formed by merging the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ) and JSC Lyulka-Saturn ( ОАО "А. Люлька-Сатурн" ) in 2001.
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….Image
…..JSC NPO "Saturn" engines D-30KP-3 "Burlak" (left) and D-30KP-2 (right) on the wing of Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft
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To the family of ImageSoloviev D-30 (ПС-30), Soviet, two-shaft, low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet", also belongs one more very significant engine. In the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union began the search for a high-speed interceptor to supplement and replace its MiG-25 supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft. The Image.MiG-25 interceptor had two powerful Tumansky.R-15BD-300, single-shaft, afterburning, turbojet engines (fan diameter: 38,0 in / 966,0 mm; eng. architecture: 5HPC1HPT, OPR: 4,75:1, rated at 86,30 kN / 8.800 kgf / 19.401 lbf dry and 109,83 kN / 11.200 kgf / 24.692 lbf on the afterburner, allowing Mach 3 speed at high altitudes, but the problem was their weak performance at low altitudes, not even sufficient to cross Mach 1 boundary. More acute problems stemmed from the tendency of the engines to break down at maximum throttle in high-speed situations. A new engine, this time a low-bypass turbofan, was needed to power the new interceptor. The Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau ( ОКБ А.И. Микояна и М.И. Гуревича ) contracted OKB-19 design bureau, now part of JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), to build such an engine for the aircraft that would become known as the Image.MiG-31 supersonic interceptor.
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The Soloviev Design Bureau ( ОКБ Швецова-Соловьева ) came up with the D-30F6 ( изд. 48 ), augmented, low-bypass, two-shaft turbofan with a common afterburner and variable supersonic nozzle, capable of generating 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.900 lbf dry thrust and 152,0 kN / 15.500 kgf / 34.172 lbf of afterburning thrust. The engine gave MiG’s new fighter a top speed exceeding 3.400 kmph / 2.112 mph. These powerful engines also allowed the large (MTOW: 46.750 kg / 103.066 lb) and complex fighter to attain supersonic speeds at low altitudes under 1.500 m / 4.900 ft. The increase in the take-off mass of the, at that time improved and modified, MiG-31M ( изд. 05 ) aircraft to 52 t / 114.640 lb required the installation of the more powerful Soloviev D-30F6-M ( изд. 64 ), twin-shaft, afterburning, low-bypass, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 1.020,0 mm / 40,2 in; BPR: 0,57:1; eng. architecture: 5F–10HPC2HPT–2LPT), OPR: 21,15:1, rated at 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.945 lbf dry and 161,80 kN / 16.500 kgf / 36.376 lbf with the afterburner. The engine received an enlarged diameter of the afterburner, and the design of the nozzle was changed (a harder nozzles were installed on the outside).
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Since the JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ), formed by merging the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ) and JSC Lyulka-Saturn ( ОАО "А. Люлька-Сатурн" ) is a basic company for a serial production, maintenance, repair/overhaul and modernization of the D-30KU/KP engines (D-30KP and D-30KP-2 engines for Image.Ilyushin Il-76/78 cargo/transport aircraft family, D-30KU and D-30KU-2 engines for Ilyushin.Il-62M long/middle-range commercial jets and D-30KU-154 engine for Image.Tupolev.Tu-154M middle-range commercial airliner), and which was also working on the development of the D-30KP-3 "Burlak" engine, enjoying the right of the D-30KU/KP engines’ designer JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), I see no reason why the modernization of the D-30F-6 ( изд. 48 ) engine would not be entrusted right to JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ) factory. I believe they are capable of implementing a lot of modern technology in a relatively short time in this, already unique, excellent and reliable, engine.
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….Image
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Image above: Two supersonic interceptor Image.MiG-31K (modified MiG-31BM «тип 28» / «тип 78») aircraft ( RF-95217 / Борт № 92 красный and RF-92454 / Борт № 93 красный ), each powered by two ImageD-30F6 ( изд. 48 ), twin-shaft, afterburning, low-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 1.020,0 mm / 40,2 in; BPR: 0,57:1; eng. architecture: 5F–10HPC2HPT–2LPT), OPR: 21,15:1, each rated at 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.945 lbf dry and 152,05 kN / 15.500 kgf / 34.172 lbf with the afterburner, armed with the Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ( Х-47М2 «Кинжал» ) nuclear-capable air-launched hypersonic ballistic missile (ALBM), one of the six.advanced weapon systems Russian president revealed in March 2018.
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The development of the new generation engine D-90 (the designation PS-90A was used since 1987) was launched in the OJSC "Perm Engine Company" on the basis of the D-70 prototype in 1979. The first engine was assembled in December 1983, and in 1985 D-90A was selected as the winner of the contest for the engine for the perspective passenger aircraft Image.Ilyushin Il-96 and Image.Tupolev Tu-204. The first flight test of the PS-90A engine happened in 1987, and in the following year, with the first of these four engines, the prototype of Ilyushin Il-96-300 aircraft, reg. СССР-96000, MSN 01-01, FN 0101 (MTOW: 250.000 kg / 551.000 lb), was launched into the air on 28. Sep 1988. Later on it was converted and on 04. Apr 1993 it first flew as the type Image.Ilyushin.Il-96M, reg. RA-96000, with the fuselage stretched by 8,6 m / 28,2 ft (63,9 m / 209,6 ft) compared to the basic model, 20 t / 44.000 lb higher MTOW (270.000 kg / 595.000 lb), fitted with the Western-style avionics and powered by four Image.PW2337, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 78,5 in / 1.993,9 mm; BPR: 6,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–12HPC2HPT–5LPT), OPR: 27,6:1, rated at 166,94 kN / 17.023 kgf / 37.530 lbf. The other modification of the aircraft based on the streched frame, Ilyushin.Il-96T, reg. RA-96101, MSN 74393201101 (MTOW: 270.000 kg / 595.000 lb), powered by the same type of engine, first flew on 16. May 1997. However, the development on the M/T variant stalled when the US Export-Import Bank suspended talks on financing the engines and avionics, following pressure from The Boeing Company. Later on, this aircraft was brought to Il-96-400T standard (MSN 97693201001) and was powered by four Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A1, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 74,8 in / 1.900,0 mm; BPR: 4,4:1; eng. architecture: 1F+2LPC–13HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 38,0:1, rated at 170,64 kN / 17.400 kgf / 38.360 lbf. By the same type of the engine will be powered and new Image.Il-96-400M ( Il-496 ) quadjet, widebody airliner. Unfortunately, the JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 engine rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf and PD-14M rated at 152,98 kN / 15.600 kgf / 34.392 lbf are not of the sufficient thrust, but PD-18R geared turbofan engine, expected to be rated up to 196,13 kN / 20.000 kgf / 44.092 lbf, would be just fine.
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The new Image.Il-96-400M ( Il-496 ) quadjet, wide-body airliner, with its external appearance, almost identical to that Ilyushin Il-96M aircraft, powered by four Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PS-90A1 turbofans, will look like an already existing Iyushin.Il-96-400VPU, the former cargo plane Il-96-400T, reg. RA-96104, MSN 97693201004, rebuilt for the Federal Security Service of Russia.
With its appearance this aircraft reminds me of Image.A340-300 aircraft (MTOW: 276,5 t / 610.000 lb), powered by four Image.CFM56-5C, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 72,3 in / 1.836,0 mm; BPR: (6,4-6,6):1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–9HPC1HPT–5LPT), OPR: (37,4-39,2):1, rated between 138,78 kN / 14.152 kgf / 31.200 lbf and 151,24 kN / 15.422 kgf / 34.000 lbf. Both beautiful aircraft, though not as much as, but just by my humble opinion, Image.A340-500 (MTOW: 380 t / 840.000 lb), powered by four Image.Trent 500, three-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 2.474,0 mm / 97,4 in; BPR: (7,32-7,6):1; engine architecture: 1F–8IPC=6HPC1HPT=1IPT–5LPT), OPR: (35,6-36,7):1, rated between 248,12 kN / 25.301 kgf / 55.780 lbf and 260,05 kN / 26.518 kgf / 58.462 lbf.
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In the summer of 2016 JSC United Engine Corporation ( АО "ОДК" ), through JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» and PJSC "UEC-Saturn", launched the .PD-35, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofan engine (fan diameter: 3.100 mmm / 120,0 in; BPR: _:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–9HPC2HPT–6LPT), CPR: 23,0:1, rated up to 343,23 kN / 35.000 kgf / 77.162 lbf, expected to be developed till 2023, predicted to power the future wide-body aircraft, including the Russo-Chinese Image.CRAIC CR929, wide-body twinjet airliner. It could also power the Ilyushin Il-96-400 ( Il-496 ) wide-body airliner, the Il-476 airlifter, Il-478 tanker and Image.An-124 Ruslan strategic, airlift quadjet replacement, aircraft currently powered by four Image.D-18T series 3, three-shaft turbofans (fan diameter: 2.330,0 mm / 91,73 in; BPR: 5,6:1; eng. architecture: 1F–7IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–4LPT), OPR: 25,0:1, each rated at 229,77 kN / 23.430 kgf / 51.655 lbf. A de-rated version would meet the Antonov An-124 thrust requirements.
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….Image
…..Ilyushin Il-96-300 - MSN 74393201004, reg. RA-96007
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The first Image.Tu-204-300 aircraft, reg. СССР-64001, FN 1450743164001, MSN 001 (MTOW: 107,5 t / 236.997 lb), powered by two PS-90A turbofans, first flew on 02. Jan 1989. On 3. Apr 1992, PS-90A engine, the first in Russia, got a certificate type. Regular passenger transportation by Image.Ilyushin.Il-96-300 aircraft with four JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" PS-90A engines started in July 1993, and by twin-engined Tupolev Tu-204 aircraft in 1996. The accumulated experience in the development and operation of PS-90A engine in civil aviation, as well as the tests of its modified version PS-90A-76 in the air force, on the experimental Il-76MF aircraft (its first flight took place on 1. Aug 1995), was a serious argument in favor of its choice for re-engining of the military transport aircraft Il-76MD. In July 2002 the Russian Ministry of Defense issued a state order for the adaptation of PS-90A engines to the military aircraft of the Russian Air Force and in December 2003 the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A-76, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 74,8 in / 1.900,0 mm; BPR: 4,6:1; eng. architecture: 1F+2LPC–13HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 29,5:1, rated at 142,20 (156,91) kN / 14.500 (16.000) kgf / 31.967 (35.274) lbf, successfully passed the state tests. The engine is used on both military transport aircraft Ilyushin.Il-76MD-90A ( Il-476 ) and the aerial fuel tanker Ilyushin.Il-78M-90A ( Il-478 ), but also on Indian Air Force.Image.Beriev.A-50EI, airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft.
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….Image
…..Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A - MSN 001-2, reg. 78650
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I have never been a particular fan of the Aviadvigatel PS-90A engine. Regardless of the fact it represents a generational step forward in the comparison with the D-30KP engine and its derivatives, including the "Burlak" engine and all those proposed derivatives: D-30KP-30, D-30KP-30-17 and D-30KP-14-76, this engine, by my humble opinion, has never reached the required technological level and the maturity, neither was ever representing something that could be described as a technical marvel. It was just systematically favored and pushed by the politics. Through the time, the numerous modifications of the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A engine made it a fairly solid propulsion unit, but not nearly what Image.JSC "Kuznetsov" engines: NK-64, three-shaft, high-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 73,2 in / 1.860,0 mm; BPR: 4,1:1; eng. architecture: 1F-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 27,6:1, rated at 156,91 kN / 16.000 kgf / 35.274 lbf and NK-56, three-shaft, high-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 80,7 in / 2.050,0 mm; BPR: 4,9:1; eng. architecture: 1F+1LPC-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 25,5:1, rated at 176,52 kN / 18.000 kgf / 39.683 lbf were supposed to be or could have become, just as it has become the largest and the most powerful engine ever fitted to any of the combat aircraft, Image.NK-32-02 ( НК-32 серии 02 / изд. Р ), three-shaft, low-bypass, afterburning turbofan (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,36:1; eng. architecture: 3F–5IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–2LPT), OPR: 28,2:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf dry and 254,97 kN / 26.000 kgf / 57.320 lbf with the afterburner, aimed for the Image.Tu-160M/M2 (изделие 70), supersonic, strategic, long-range, heavy bomber. The version of this engine was also used for the propulsion of the Image.Tu-144LL.SST Flying Labaratory, reg. RA-77114 (ex Tu-144D, MSN № 08-2, борт. № 77114), powered by four Image.NK-321, three-shaft, low-bypass, afterburning turbofans (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,36:1; eng. architecture: 3F–5IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–2LPT), OPR: 28,2:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf dry and 245,17 kN / 25.000 kgf / 55.116 lbf with the afterburner.
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The Soviet attack rocket warship-ekranoplan S-31 Lun, developed from the project 903 "Lun" ( пр.903 «Лунь» ), MSN 31, projected in the JSC Alekseev's Design Bureau ( АО «ЦКБ по СПК им. Р.Е. Алексеева» ) was powered by eight..Image.NK-87, twin-shaft, low-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engines with adjustable nozzles (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,17:1; eng. architecture: 2F+3LPC-6HPC1HPT-2LPT), OPR: 13,4:1, rated at 127,49 kN / 13.000 kgf / 28.660 lbf, mounted on the forward canards. Those engines had corrosion and heat-resistant coatings, providing reliable operation in the marine environment. Aimed for the anti-surface warfare, the vessel was equipped with ЗМ-80E "Moskit" supersonic, ramjet powered, anti-ship, cruise missile. Six missile launchers were mounted in pairs on the dorsal surface of its fuselage with advanced tracking systems mounted in its nose and tail. The vessel had a flying boat hull with a large deflecting plate at the bottom to provide a "step" for takeoff. It had a maximum cruising speed of 550 kmph / 340 mph. The only model of this class ever built entered service with the Black Sea Fleet in 1987.
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...The JSC "Kuznetsov" ( ПАО «Кузнецов» ) factory (ОКБ-276) signs one more famous and timeless project, that of the Image.Tu-95, large, four-engine, turboprop-powered, strategic bomber and missile platform, first flown in 1952, entering service with the Soviet Union in 1956. It is expected to serve the Russian Aerospace Forces until at least 2040. The aircraft is powered by four Image.NK-12MV, 1,5-shaft, turboprop engines with 4-bladed contra-rotating propellers (prop. diameter: 244,1 in / 6.200,0 mm; gear ratio: 11,34:1; eng. architecture: 2P-]G[-14IPC〦5IPT), OPR: (9,0-13,0):1, each rated at 14.795 shp (15.000 sPS) / 11.033 kW + 2,78 kN / 283 kgf / 625 lbf of thrust at 9.250 rpm. This is the most powerful turboprop engine to enter the service so far. The versions of the engine are used as the powerplant for Tupolev.Tu-142 .( NK-12MP ), a Soviet/Russian maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft derived from the Tu-95 turboprop strategic bomber, but also a passenger airliner derivative, Tupolev.Tu-114.( NK-12M ), a turboprop-powered long-range airliner.
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Just for the comparison: Image.A400M Atlas, European, four-engine, turboprop, military transport aircraft is powered by four Image.TP400-D6, 3-shaft, turboprop engines with 8-bladed Scimitar propellers (prop. diameter: 209,8 in / 5.329,0 mm; gear ratio: 9,929:1; engine architecture: 1P-]G[-5IPC=6HPC1HPT=1IPT–3LPT), OPR: 25,0:1, rated at 11.065 shp (11.218 sPS) / 8.251 kW.
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….Image
…..Tu-160 - MSN 7-05, reg. RF-94104 / 05 красный, named "Александр Голованов"
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The politics in the former Soviet Union was favouring the JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ) factory, and this trend seems to have continued in the Russian Federation, the same way they were favouring the PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) factory in comparison with the JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ).
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Namely, the Image.Salyut.AL-31F-M3-2 ( изд. 99M3 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 924,0 mm / 36,4 in; BPR: 0,61:1; eng. architecture: 3F–6HPC〧1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 27,72:1, rated at 150,04 kN / 15.300 kgf / 33.731 lbf on the afterburner, with a new Image.'KLIVT' thrust vector nozzles (also used on the Image.MiG-29 aircraft’ derivatives: MiG-29M OVT TVC demonstrator and recently presented MiG-35 multirole fighter), the engine that was competing with Image.AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 932,0 mm / 36,7 in; BPR: 0,65:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), rated at 86,30 kN / 8.800 kgf / 19.401 lbf dry and 147,10 kN / 15.000 kgf / 33.069 lbf on the afterburner, for the propulsion (in the first development stage) of the Image.Su-57 stealth, single-seat, twin-engine, multirole, fifth-generation jet fighter, unlike the basic Saturn AL-31F ( изд. 99В ) engine (fan diameter: 905,0 mm / 35,6 in; BPR: 0,56:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 22,87:1, rated at 74,56 kN / 7.600 kgf / 16.756 lbf dry and 122,62 kN / 12.500 kgf / 27.558 lbf on the afterburner as and all its derivates produced by both PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) and JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ), including the latest Image.AL-41F-1S ( изд. 117C ) and Saturn AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ) engines, and that were designed on the 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT eng. architecture, was designed on the quite different, 3F–6HPC1HPT–1LPT, architecture, with an all new 3-stage KND 924-3 fan / LP compressor (AL-31F-M3-1 engine had 4-stage LPC designated as KND 924-4) and 6-stage HP compressor, thus in a much greater extent reminding of the fifth generation engine, the new Izdeliye 30, eng. architecture: 3F–5HPC1HPT–1LPT, rated at 106,89 kN / 11.000 kgf / 24.030 lbf dry and 171,62 kN / 18.000 kgf / 39.683 lbf on the afterburner, than the competition Image.AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ) engine. They could have easily named it Salyut AL-41F-M1. I feel sorry JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" did not go with the same fan diameter of 932,0 mm / 36,7 in on this engine as PJSC "UEC-Saturn" did with their recent engine models.
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….Image
…..PJSC "UEC-Saturn" AL-41F-1S military turbofan engine
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Besides, since the Saturn AL-41F-1 ( Изделие 117 ) engine is just an evolution of the Image.AL-41F-1S ( Изделие 117C ) engine used on the Russian Image.Su-35S and Chinese Su-35SK figter-jets, and very soon also on Su-30SM, currently powered by two Saturn AL-31FP ( изд. 96 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning turbofans (fan diameter: 35,6 in / 905,0 mm; BPR: 0,56:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 22,87:1, each rated at 74,56 kN / 7.600 kgf / 16.756 lbf dry and 122,62 kN / 12.500 kgf / 27.558 lbf with the afterburner, I see no reason why this engine could not be used for the repowering of the existing or powering those future Russian Su-35S and Su-30SM, Chinese SAC J-11 / SAC J-16 / SAC J-15 ( Chinese copies of the Russian Su-27 / Su-30 / Su-33 ), Su-35SK, Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2 aircraft, Indian Su-30MKI and all the other derivatives of the aircraft used by Indonesia, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Malaysia, Algeria and Russia. But that’s the theme for another story …
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….Image
…..RuAF Sukhoi Su-30SM - reg. "16 красный", MSN 10МК5 1017
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For the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 engine, with the leading role of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (ЦИАМ им. П. И. Баранова), the head scientific research institute of the industry and JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel», the 16 critical technologies were developed: single-crystal blades of a high-pressure turbine (HPT) with the advanced cooling system, operational at a gas temperature of up to 2000 °K, a hollow wide-chord fan blade from a titanium alloy, thanks to which the efficiency of the fan stage was increased by 5 % compared to PS-90 engine, low-emission combustion chamber of intermetallic alloy, sound-absorbing structures made of composite materials, ceramic coatings on hot parts, hollow blades of low-pressure turbines, etc...
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At the MAKS-2015 international air show held at Zhukovsky International Airport ( ZIA ) it was already possible to see the prototype of a wide-chord fan blade made of carbon fiber, created in CIAM, the mass of which is 65 % of the mass of the hollow titanium blade used now. At the CIAM booth, one could also see the prototype of the gearbox which is supposed to be equipped with a Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-18R, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.300,0 mm / 90,6 in; BPR: 10,0:1; gear ratio: _:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-4LPC–9HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: _:1, modification. It is assumed to raise by 50 °K and the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine (TIT). This will increase the PD-18R’s thrust up to 196,13 kN / 20.000 kgf / 44.092 lbf, and the specific fuel consumption will be reduced by another 5 % (0,510 kg/kgf*h).
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The advantage of the geared turbofans is significant compared to the standard twin-shaft concept of the turbofan engines, on which the LPC’s speed of the rotation is conditioned and limited by the fan’s speed. The gearbox reduces the fan speed, enabling to fan to rotate at closer to its optimum speed, which is one third (in the case of Image.PW1000G engine) of the speed of the low-pressure turbine, so it is not tied to the N1 shaft’s (LPC+LPT) speed anymore. This way it works in a more efficient mode, increasing engine’s propulsion efficiency. By installing the gearbox in between the fan and the LPC, the geometry of the LPC and HPC could be totally redesigned and scaled-down. This enables the higher LPC’s and HPC’s rotation speeds, thus increasing the mass flow through the core, in the same time reducing the overall weight of the engine. In turn, this enables a design of the fan with a larger diameter, a higher BPR, which in turn increases the propulsion efficiency and reduces the fuel consumption. The fan operates most efficiently at lower rpms (lower noise levels and lower fan tip speeds at its greater diameter satisfy stress and supersonic flow limitations).
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….Image
…..JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 turbofan engine
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When they were creating the PD-14 engine (formerly known as the PS-12 and PS-14; PD-14’s gas-generator design from the PS-12 engine, which includes an 8-stage HPC and 2-stage HPT), the engineers from the very beginning relied on the domestic materials. It was clear that under no circumstances would Russian companies be given access to new materials of foreign manufacture. Here the leading role was played by the All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials - VIAM (ФГУП "ВИАМ" ГНЦ РФ), with the participation of which about 20 new materials were developed for this engine. But creating the material is half the battle. Sometimes Russian metals are superior in quality to foreign ones, but for their use in a civilian aircraft engine certification to international standards is necessary. Otherwise, the engine, no matter how good, will not be allowed to fly outside of Russia. The rules are very strict here, because we are talking about the safety of people. The same applies to the engine manufacturing process: companies in the industry require certification according to the standards of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). All this will force to raise the production culture, and it is necessary to re-equip the industry for a new technologies. The development of PD-14 engine itself was carried out according to a new, digital technology. Even the Image.Ilyushin.Il-76LL, reg. 76529, MSN 08-07, FN 073410308, flying laboratory, after several years of inactivity, needed to be equipped with a new equipment for the engine’s testing (engine PD-14 № 100-07). There was also work for unique CIAM stands, which allow to simulate flight conditions on the ground. The PD-14 engine received its Russian type certificate from country’s Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviatsiya) in October 2018. Validation of the certificate by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is scheduled for 2019.
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Image
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In the comparison with the basic JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 8,5:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–8HPC〧2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 41,0:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf, the more powerful version of the engine, JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14M, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 7,2:1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–8HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 46,0:1, rated at 152,98 kN / 15.600 kgf / 34.392 lbf, has one more stage in LPC, higher OPR and SFC of 0,543 kg/kgf*h, compared to 0,526 kg/kgf*h for the PD-14 engine.
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Besides the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 8,5:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–8HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 41,0:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf and Image.PW1431G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,0:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC〧2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1, rated at 140,44 kN / 14.321 kgf / 31.572 lbf, one more engine was once considered as the Image.JSC Irkut Corporation ( ПАО "Корпорация "Иркут" ).MC-21-300, Russian single-aisle, twinjet, airliner’s powerplant, and that was Image.AI-436T12 (previously known as the D-436ТH), three-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 81,5 in / 2.070,0 mm; BPR: 10,35:1; eng. architecture: 1F-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 26,33:1, rated at 117,68 kN / 12.000 kgf / 26.455 lbf, that was supposed to be created on the basis of the AI-436T3 engine, the most perfect version of the Ivchenko-Progress.D-436, three-shaft, high-bypass turbofan engine at that time.
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….Image
…..JSC Irkut Corporation МС-21-300 - MSN 21001, reg. 73051
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...This engine was predicted to be produced jointly by the Russian factories Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) and Image.JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ) on one side and the Ukrainian factories Image.Ivchenko-Progress ZMKB ( ЗМКБ «Прогрес» ім. О.Г.Івченка ) and Image.PJSC "Motor Sich" ( ВАТ "Мотор Січ" ) on the other …
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Since the MC-21 aircraft, produced by Image.JSC Irkut Corporation ( ПАО "Корпорация "Иркут" ), was designed by the JSC A.S. Yakovlev Design Bureau ( ОАО «ОКБ имени А.С. Яковлева» ), I’d prefer to see it being named Image.Yakovlev Yak-242 ( Як-242 ) as it was, at first, and anticipated …
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Mario
"Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile" - Albert Einstein
 
tu204
Posts: 2177
Joined: Wed Mar 08, 2006 12:36 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Apr 06, 2019 9:15 pm

mfranjic wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:

ikolkyo wrote:


Similar fuel burn to an early PS90A? Has to be a typo right? Good god that is terrible. PD-14 powered aircraft are going to be so inferior to their GTF counterparts.


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians (same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


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tu204 wrote:

Wayfarer515 wrote:


No, it is not a typo, however I understand this is expected since right now the engine is also overweight and is somewhat overengineered to guarantee its reliability as this seems to be a common approach by the Russians(same thing happened with the SSJ100 weight). Perm motor corp. has promised to achieve expected fuel burn by the time the A/C enters operation, if not they will have some hefty penalties to pay anyway, so they better do as promised.


Wayfarer, are you certain? It doesn't seem realistic that they would come out with a product with similar efficiency of something built 30 years ago considering all the advances in technology during this time.


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At this stage of the engine’s testing, the different hardware and software settings are implemented with it, resulting in a somewhat different and oscillating output data. To draw the concrete conclusions from them, in this moment, it would be a little hasty, superficial, frivolous and certainly unprofessional. Much more than the reliable informations these could be just speculations, rumors and inveracity, and that don’t have too much in common with the real facts. Once the engine enters the commercial use, the real data will slowly become available and then it will be possible to make a concrete and accurate conclusions and draw the comparisons with the competition manufacturer’s engine, Image.PW1431G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,0:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1, rated at 140,44 kN / 14.321 kgf / 31.572 lbf, but also with the competiton aircraft:
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Image.Image.A320neo aircraft family, powered by Image.PW1100G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,5:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1 or Image.LEAP-1A, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 78,0 in / 1.981,2 mm; BPR: 11,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–7LPT), OPR: 40,0:1;
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Image.Image.737 MAX aircraft, powered by Image.LEAP-1B, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 69,4 in / 1.762,8 mm; BPR: 9,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–5LPT), OPR: 43,68:1;
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Image.Image.C919 aircraft, powered by AVIC ACAE.CJ-1000A, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 76,8 in / 1.950,7 mm; BPR: >9,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+ 3LPC– 10HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: ~40,0:1 or Image.LEAP-1C, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 77,0 in / 1.955,8 mm; BPR: 11,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–10HPC2HPT–7LPT), OPR: 40,0:1.
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Until then, I suggest a bit of restraint and patience. Only my humble opinion …
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….Image
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….Image
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Images above: The comparison between the fuel consumption of the different generations of the Russian turbofan engines: Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" D-30KP ( Д-30КП ), Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PS-90A-76 ( ПС-90А-76 ) and Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14M ( ПД-14М )
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The development of the D-30KP engine was started by the OJSC "Perm Engine Company" ( ОАО "Пермский Моторный Завод" ), now JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), in 1968, and in 1972 it was put in the serial production at JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ), which later received all the rights to repair it and further improve it. Since 1981 in the production is an improved version of the engine, D-30KP-2, with the increased reliability, retaining the propulsion characteristics at elevated ambient temperatures. Nowadays, the D-30KP-2, twin-shaft, non-afterburning, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 2,24:1; eng. architecture: 3F–11HPC〧2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 20,1:1, rated at 117,68 kN / 12.000 kgf / 26.455 lbf, is produced by Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) company.
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During the work on the upgrading of the D-30KP engine, that was carried out since the late 1970s in JSC "Rybinsk Motors", an improved version of the engine, D-30KP-30, was proposed, with a thrust of 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf, and later on it was planned to create another version, D-30KP-30-17, with a thrust of 166,71 kN / 17.000 kgf / 37.479 lbf. However, the priority for a number, mainly political, reasons was given to the project of a new OJSC "Perm Engine Company" D-90A engine (today known as PS-90A). The works on the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" D-30KP-30 engine, as well as on those Image.Kuznetsov’s NK-56 and NK-64 engines, were suspended. Later, in the 1990s, the project of the D-30KP-14-76 engine with a thrust of 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf was created in Rybinsk, and some of the solutions applied in its design were the basis of the D-30KP-3 ‘Burlak’, twin-shaft, medium-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 65,4 in / 1.662,0 mm; BPR: 3,62:1; eng. architecture: 1F+1LPC–11HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 17,99:1, rated at 127,49 kN / 13.000 kgf / 28.660 lbf. The essence of the modernization of the ‘Burlak’ engine was in replacing the three-stage low-pressure compressor (fan) with a single-stage wide-chord fan and single-stage LPC and by increasing the bypass ratio from 2,24 to 3,62. The use of the high-efficiency low-noise fan in the combination with the increased bypass ratio, using a modified low-emission combustion chamber and special sound-absorbing structures allowed to reduce the specific fuel consumption by 10-11 %, increase the resource by almost twice and ensure that the engine characteristics comply with the ICAO Chapter 4 for noise and emission standards. The works on it were conducted by JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ) since mid-2003. JSC NPO "Saturn" company was formed by merging the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ) and JSC Lyulka-Saturn ( ОАО "А. Люлька-Сатурн" ) in 2001.
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….Image
…..JSC NPO "Saturn" engines D-30KP-3 "Burlak" (left) and D-30KP-2 (right) on the wing of Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft
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To the family of ImageSoloviev D-30 (ПС-30), Soviet, two-shaft, low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet", also belongs one more very significant engine. In the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union began the search for a high-speed interceptor to supplement and replace its MiG-25 supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft. The Image.MiG-25 interceptor had two powerful Tumansky.R-15BD-300, single-shaft, afterburning, turbojet engines (fan diameter: 38,0 in / 966,0 mm; eng. architecture: 5HPC1HPT, OPR: 4,75:1, rated at 86,30 kN / 8.800 kgf / 19.401 lbf dry and 109,83 kN / 11.200 kgf / 24.692 lbf on the afterburner, allowing Mach 3 speed at high altitudes, but the problem was their weak performance at low altitudes, not even sufficient to cross Mach 1 boundary. More acute problems stemmed from the tendency of the engines to break down at maximum throttle in high-speed situations. A new engine, this time a low-bypass turbofan, was needed to power the new interceptor. The Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau ( ОКБ А.И. Микояна и М.И. Гуревича ) contracted OKB-19 design bureau, now part of JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), to build such an engine for the aircraft that would become known as the Image.MiG-31 supersonic interceptor.
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The Soloviev Design Bureau ( ОКБ Швецова-Соловьева ) came up with the D-30F6 ( изд. 48 ), augmented, low-bypass, two-shaft turbofan with a common afterburner and variable supersonic nozzle, capable of generating 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.900 lbf dry thrust and 152,0 kN / 15.500 kgf / 34.172 lbf of afterburning thrust. The engine gave MiG’s new fighter a top speed exceeding 3.400 kmph / 2.112 mph. These powerful engines also allowed the large (MTOW: 46.750 kg / 103.066 lb) and complex fighter to attain supersonic speeds at low altitudes under 1.500 m / 4.900 ft. The increase in the take-off mass of the, at that time improved and modified, MiG-31M ( изд. 05 ) aircraft to 52 t / 114.640 lb required the installation of the more powerful Soloviev D-30F6-M ( изд. 64 ), twin-shaft, afterburning, low-bypass, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 1.020,0 mm / 40,2 in; BPR: 0,57:1; eng. architecture: 5F–10HPC2HPT–2LPT), OPR: 21,15:1, rated at 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.945 lbf dry and 161,80 kN / 16.500 kgf / 36.376 lbf with the afterburner. The engine received an enlarged diameter of the afterburner, and the design of the nozzle was changed (a harder nozzles were installed on the outside).
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Since the JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ), formed by merging the JSC "Rybinsk Motors" ( ОАО "Рыбинские моторы" ) and JSC Lyulka-Saturn ( ОАО "А. Люлька-Сатурн" ) is a basic company for a serial production, maintenance, repair/overhaul and modernization of the D-30KU/KP engines (D-30KP and D-30KP-2 engines for Image.Ilyushin Il-76/78 cargo/transport aircraft family, D-30KU and D-30KU-2 engines for Ilyushin.Il-62M long/middle-range commercial jets and D-30KU-154 engine for Image.Tupolev.Tu-154M middle-range commercial airliner), and which was also working on the development of the D-30KP-3 "Burlak" engine, enjoying the right of the D-30KU/KP engines’ designer JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ), I see no reason why the modernization of the D-30F-6 ( изд. 48 ) engine would not be entrusted right to JSC NPO "Saturn" ( ПАО "НПО "Сатурн" ) factory. I believe they are capable of implementing a lot of modern technology in a relatively short time in this, already unique, excellent and reliable, engine.
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….Image
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Image above: Two supersonic interceptor Image.MiG-31K (modified MiG-31BM «тип 28» / «тип 78») aircraft ( RF-95217 / Борт № 92 красный and RF-92454 / Борт № 93 красный ), each powered by two ImageD-30F6 ( изд. 48 ), twin-shaft, afterburning, low-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 1.020,0 mm / 40,2 in; BPR: 0,57:1; eng. architecture: 5F–10HPC2HPT–2LPT), OPR: 21,15:1, each rated at 93,20 kN / 9.500 kgf / 20.945 lbf dry and 152,05 kN / 15.500 kgf / 34.172 lbf with the afterburner, armed with the Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ( Х-47М2 «Кинжал» ) nuclear-capable air-launched hypersonic ballistic missile (ALBM), one of the six.advanced weapon systems Russian president revealed in March 2018.
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The development of the new generation engine D-90 (the designation PS-90A was used since 1987) was launched in the OJSC "Perm Engine Company" on the basis of the D-70 prototype in 1979. The first engine was assembled in December 1983, and in 1985 D-90A was selected as the winner of the contest for the engine for the perspective passenger aircraft Image.Ilyushin Il-96 and Image.Tupolev Tu-204. The first flight test of the PS-90A engine happened in 1987, and in the following year, with the first of these four engines, the prototype of Ilyushin Il-96-300 aircraft, reg. СССР-96000, MSN 01-01, FN 0101 (MTOW: 250.000 kg / 551.000 lb), was launched into the air on 28. Sep 1988. Later on it was converted and on 04. Apr 1993 it first flew as the type Image.Ilyushin.Il-96M, reg. RA-96000, with the fuselage stretched by 8,6 m / 28,2 ft (63,9 m / 209,6 ft) compared to the basic model, 20 t / 44.000 lb higher MTOW (270.000 kg / 595.000 lb), fitted with the Western-style avionics and powered by four Image.PW2337, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 78,5 in / 1.993,9 mm; BPR: 6,0:1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–12HPC2HPT–5LPT), OPR: 27,6:1, rated at 166,94 kN / 17.023 kgf / 37.530 lbf. The other modification of the aircraft based on the streched frame, Ilyushin.Il-96T, reg. RA-96101, MSN 74393201101 (MTOW: 270.000 kg / 595.000 lb), powered by the same type of engine, first flew on 16. May 1997. However, the development on the M/T variant stalled when the US Export-Import Bank suspended talks on financing the engines and avionics, following pressure from The Boeing Company. Later on, this aircraft was brought to Il-96-400T standard (MSN 97693201001) and was powered by four Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A1, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 74,8 in / 1.900,0 mm; BPR: 4,4:1; eng. architecture: 1F+2LPC–13HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 38,0:1, rated at 170,64 kN / 17.400 kgf / 38.360 lbf. By the same type of the engine will be powered and new Image.Il-96-400M ( Il-496 ) quadjet, widebody airliner. Unfortunately, the JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 engine rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf and PD-14M rated at 152,98 kN / 15.600 kgf / 34.392 lbf are not of the sufficient thrust, but PD-18R geared turbofan engine, expected to be rated up to 196,13 kN / 20.000 kgf / 44.092 lbf, would be just fine.
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The new Image.Il-96-400M ( Il-496 ) quadjet, wide-body airliner, with its external appearance, almost identical to that Ilyushin Il-96M aircraft, powered by four Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PS-90A1 turbofans, will look like an already existing Iyushin.Il-96-400VPU, the former cargo plane Il-96-400T, reg. RA-96104, MSN 97693201004, rebuilt for the Federal Security Service of Russia.
With its appearance this aircraft reminds me of Image.A340-300 aircraft (MTOW: 276,5 t / 610.000 lb), powered by four Image.CFM56-5C, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofans (fan diameter: 72,3 in / 1.836,0 mm; BPR: (6,4-6,6):1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–9HPC1HPT–5LPT), OPR: (37,4-39,2):1, rated between 138,78 kN / 14.152 kgf / 31.200 lbf and 151,24 kN / 15.422 kgf / 34.000 lbf. Both beautiful aircraft, though not as much as, but just by my humble opinion, Image.A340-500 (MTOW: 380 t / 840.000 lb), powered by four Image.Trent 500, three-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engines (fan diameter: 2.474,0 mm / 97,4 in; BPR: (7,32-7,6):1; engine architecture: 1F–8IPC=6HPC1HPT=1IPT–5LPT), OPR: (35,6-36,7):1, rated between 248,12 kN / 25.301 kgf / 55.780 lbf and 260,05 kN / 26.518 kgf / 58.462 lbf.
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In the summer of 2016 JSC United Engine Corporation ( АО "ОДК" ), through JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» and PJSC "UEC-Saturn", launched the .PD-35, twin-shaft, high-bypass turbofan engine (fan diameter: 3.100 mmm / 120,0 in; BPR: _:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–9HPC2HPT–6LPT), CPR: 23,0:1, rated up to 343,23 kN / 35.000 kgf / 77.162 lbf, expected to be developed till 2023, predicted to power the future wide-body aircraft, including the Russo-Chinese Image.CRAIC CR929, wide-body twinjet airliner. It could also power the Ilyushin Il-96-400 ( Il-496 ) wide-body airliner, the Il-476 airlifter, Il-478 tanker and Image.An-124 Ruslan strategic, airlift quadjet replacement, aircraft currently powered by four Image.D-18T series 3, three-shaft turbofans (fan diameter: 2.330,0 mm / 91,73 in; BPR: 5,6:1; eng. architecture: 1F–7IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–4LPT), OPR: 25,0:1, each rated at 229,77 kN / 23.430 kgf / 51.655 lbf. A de-rated version would meet the Antonov An-124 thrust requirements.
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…..Ilyushin Il-96-300 - MSN 74393201004, reg. RA-96007
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The first Image.Tu-204-300 aircraft, reg. СССР-64001, FN 1450743164001, MSN 001 (MTOW: 107,5 t / 236.997 lb), powered by two PS-90A turbofans, first flew on 02. Jan 1989. On 3. Apr 1992, PS-90A engine, the first in Russia, got a certificate type. Regular passenger transportation by Image.Ilyushin.Il-96-300 aircraft with four JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" PS-90A engines started in July 1993, and by twin-engined Tupolev Tu-204 aircraft in 1996. The accumulated experience in the development and operation of PS-90A engine in civil aviation, as well as the tests of its modified version PS-90A-76 in the air force, on the experimental Il-76MF aircraft (its first flight took place on 1. Aug 1995), was a serious argument in favor of its choice for re-engining of the military transport aircraft Il-76MD. In July 2002 the Russian Ministry of Defense issued a state order for the adaptation of PS-90A engines to the military aircraft of the Russian Air Force and in December 2003 the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A-76, twin-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 74,8 in / 1.900,0 mm; BPR: 4,6:1; eng. architecture: 1F+2LPC–13HPC2HPT–4LPT), OPR: 29,5:1, rated at 142,20 (156,91) kN / 14.500 (16.000) kgf / 31.967 (35.274) lbf, successfully passed the state tests. The engine is used on both military transport aircraft Ilyushin.Il-76MD-90A ( Il-476 ) and the aerial fuel tanker Ilyushin.Il-78M-90A ( Il-478 ), but also on Indian Air Force.Image.Beriev.A-50EI, airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft.
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…..Ilyushin Il-76MD-90A - MSN 001-2, reg. 78650
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I have never been a particular fan of the Aviadvigatel PS-90A engine. Regardless of the fact it represents a generational step forward in the comparison with the D-30KP engine and its derivatives, including the "Burlak" engine and all those proposed derivatives: D-30KP-30, D-30KP-30-17 and D-30KP-14-76, this engine, by my humble opinion, has never reached the required technological level and the maturity, neither was ever representing something that could be described as a technical marvel. It was just systematically favored and pushed by the politics. Through the time, the numerous modifications of the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PS-90A engine made it a fairly solid propulsion unit, but not nearly what Image.JSC "Kuznetsov" engines: NK-64, three-shaft, high-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 73,2 in / 1.860,0 mm; BPR: 4,1:1; eng. architecture: 1F-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 27,6:1, rated at 156,91 kN / 16.000 kgf / 35.274 lbf and NK-56, three-shaft, high-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 80,7 in / 2.050,0 mm; BPR: 4,9:1; eng. architecture: 1F+1LPC-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 25,5:1, rated at 176,52 kN / 18.000 kgf / 39.683 lbf were supposed to be or could have become, just as it has become the largest and the most powerful engine ever fitted to any of the combat aircraft, Image.NK-32-02 ( НК-32 серии 02 / изд. Р ), three-shaft, low-bypass, afterburning turbofan (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,36:1; eng. architecture: 3F–5IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–2LPT), OPR: 28,2:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf dry and 254,97 kN / 26.000 kgf / 57.320 lbf with the afterburner, aimed for the Image.Tu-160M/M2 (изделие 70), supersonic, strategic, long-range, heavy bomber. The version of this engine was also used for the propulsion of the Image.Tu-144LL.SST Flying Labaratory, reg. RA-77114 (ex Tu-144D, MSN № 08-2, борт. № 77114), powered by four Image.NK-321, three-shaft, low-bypass, afterburning turbofans (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,36:1; eng. architecture: 3F–5IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT–2LPT), OPR: 28,2:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf dry and 245,17 kN / 25.000 kgf / 55.116 lbf with the afterburner.
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The Soviet attack rocket warship-ekranoplan S-31 Lun, developed from the project 903 "Lun" ( пр.903 «Лунь» ), MSN 31, projected in the JSC Alekseev's Design Bureau ( АО «ЦКБ по СПК им. Р.Е. Алексеева» ) was powered by eight..Image.NK-87, twin-shaft, low-bypass, non-afterburning, turbofan engines with adjustable nozzles (fan diameter: 57,3 in / 1.455,0 mm; BPR: 1,17:1; eng. architecture: 2F+3LPC-6HPC1HPT-2LPT), OPR: 13,4:1, rated at 127,49 kN / 13.000 kgf / 28.660 lbf, mounted on the forward canards. Those engines had corrosion and heat-resistant coatings, providing reliable operation in the marine environment. Aimed for the anti-surface warfare, the vessel was equipped with ЗМ-80E "Moskit" supersonic, ramjet powered, anti-ship, cruise missile. Six missile launchers were mounted in pairs on the dorsal surface of its fuselage with advanced tracking systems mounted in its nose and tail. The vessel had a flying boat hull with a large deflecting plate at the bottom to provide a "step" for takeoff. It had a maximum cruising speed of 550 kmph / 340 mph. The only model of this class ever built entered service with the Black Sea Fleet in 1987.
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...The JSC "Kuznetsov" ( ПАО «Кузнецов» ) factory (ОКБ-276) signs one more famous and timeless project, that of the Image.Tu-95, large, four-engine, turboprop-powered, strategic bomber and missile platform, first flown in 1952, entering service with the Soviet Union in 1956. It is expected to serve the Russian Aerospace Forces until at least 2040. The aircraft is powered by four Image.NK-12MV, 1,5-shaft, turboprop engines with 4-bladed contra-rotating propellers (prop. diameter: 244,1 in / 6.200,0 mm; gear ratio: 11,34:1; eng. architecture: 2P-]G[-14IPC〦5IPT), OPR: (9,0-13,0):1, each rated at 14.795 shp (15.000 sPS) / 11.033 kW + 2,78 kN / 283 kgf / 625 lbf of thrust at 9.250 rpm. This is the most powerful turboprop engine to enter the service so far. The versions of the engine are used as the powerplant for Tupolev.Tu-142 .( NK-12MP ), a Soviet/Russian maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft derived from the Tu-95 turboprop strategic bomber, but also a passenger airliner derivative, Tupolev.Tu-114.( NK-12M ), a turboprop-powered long-range airliner.
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Just for the comparison: Image.A400M Atlas, European, four-engine, turboprop, military transport aircraft is powered by four Image.TP400-D6, 3-shaft, turboprop engines with 8-bladed Scimitar propellers (prop. diameter: 209,8 in / 5.329,0 mm; gear ratio: 9,929:1; engine architecture: 1P-]G[-5IPC=6HPC1HPT=1IPT–3LPT), OPR: 25,0:1, rated at 11.065 shp (11.218 sPS) / 8.251 kW.
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…..Tu-160 - MSN 7-05, reg. RF-94104 / 05 красный, named "Александр Голованов"
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The politics in the former Soviet Union was favouring the JSC "UEC-Aviadvigatel" ( АО "ОДК-Авиадвигатель" ) factory, and this trend seems to have continued in the Russian Federation, the same way they were favouring the PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) factory in comparison with the JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ).
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Namely, the Image.Salyut.AL-31F-M3-2 ( изд. 99M3 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 924,0 mm / 36,4 in; BPR: 0,61:1; eng. architecture: 3F–6HPC〧1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 27,72:1, rated at 150,04 kN / 15.300 kgf / 33.731 lbf on the afterburner, with a new Image.'KLIVT' thrust vector nozzles (also used on the Image.MiG-29 aircraft’ derivatives: MiG-29M OVT TVC demonstrator and recently presented MiG-35 multirole fighter), the engine that was competing with Image.AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 932,0 mm / 36,7 in; BPR: 0,65:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), rated at 86,30 kN / 8.800 kgf / 19.401 lbf dry and 147,10 kN / 15.000 kgf / 33.069 lbf on the afterburner, for the propulsion (in the first development stage) of the Image.Su-57 stealth, single-seat, twin-engine, multirole, fifth-generation jet fighter, unlike the basic Saturn AL-31F ( изд. 99В ) engine (fan diameter: 905,0 mm / 35,6 in; BPR: 0,56:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 22,87:1, rated at 74,56 kN / 7.600 kgf / 16.756 lbf dry and 122,62 kN / 12.500 kgf / 27.558 lbf on the afterburner as and all its derivates produced by both PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) and JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ), including the latest Image.AL-41F-1S ( изд. 117C ) and Saturn AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ) engines, and that were designed on the 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT eng. architecture, was designed on the quite different, 3F–6HPC1HPT–1LPT, architecture, with an all new 3-stage KND 924-3 fan / LP compressor (AL-31F-M3-1 engine had 4-stage LPC designated as KND 924-4) and 6-stage HP compressor, thus in a much greater extent reminding of the fifth generation engine, the new Izdeliye 30, eng. architecture: 3F–5HPC1HPT–1LPT, rated at 106,89 kN / 11.000 kgf / 24.030 lbf dry and 171,62 kN / 18.000 kgf / 39.683 lbf on the afterburner, than the competition Image.AL-41F-1 ( изд. 117 ) engine. They could have easily named it Salyut AL-41F-M1. I feel sorry JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" did not go with the same fan diameter of 932,0 mm / 36,7 in on this engine as PJSC "UEC-Saturn" did with their recent engine models.
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…..PJSC "UEC-Saturn" AL-41F-1S military turbofan engine
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Besides, since the Saturn AL-41F-1 ( Изделие 117 ) engine is just an evolution of the Image.AL-41F-1S ( Изделие 117C ) engine used on the Russian Image.Su-35S and Chinese Su-35SK figter-jets, and very soon also on Su-30SM, currently powered by two Saturn AL-31FP ( изд. 96 ), twin-shaft, TVC, afterburning turbofans (fan diameter: 35,6 in / 905,0 mm; BPR: 0,56:1; eng. architecture: 4F–9HPC1HPT–1LPT), OPR: 22,87:1, each rated at 74,56 kN / 7.600 kgf / 16.756 lbf dry and 122,62 kN / 12.500 kgf / 27.558 lbf with the afterburner, I see no reason why this engine could not be used for the repowering of the existing or powering those future Russian Su-35S and Su-30SM, Chinese SAC J-11 / SAC J-16 / SAC J-15 ( Chinese copies of the Russian Su-27 / Su-30 / Su-33 ), Su-35SK, Su-30MKK and Su-30MK2 aircraft, Indian Su-30MKI and all the other derivatives of the aircraft used by Indonesia, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Malaysia, Algeria and Russia. But that’s the theme for another story …
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…..RuAF Sukhoi Su-30SM - reg. "16 красный", MSN 10МК5 1017
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For the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 engine, with the leading role of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (ЦИАМ им. П. И. Баранова), the head scientific research institute of the industry and JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel», the 16 critical technologies were developed: single-crystal blades of a high-pressure turbine (HPT) with the advanced cooling system, operational at a gas temperature of up to 2000 °K, a hollow wide-chord fan blade from a titanium alloy, thanks to which the efficiency of the fan stage was increased by 5 % compared to PS-90 engine, low-emission combustion chamber of intermetallic alloy, sound-absorbing structures made of composite materials, ceramic coatings on hot parts, hollow blades of low-pressure turbines, etc...
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At the MAKS-2015 international air show held at Zhukovsky International Airport ( ZIA ) it was already possible to see the prototype of a wide-chord fan blade made of carbon fiber, created in CIAM, the mass of which is 65 % of the mass of the hollow titanium blade used now. At the CIAM booth, one could also see the prototype of the gearbox which is supposed to be equipped with a Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-18R, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.300,0 mm / 90,6 in; BPR: 10,0:1; gear ratio: _:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-4LPC–9HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: _:1, modification. It is assumed to raise by 50 °K and the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine (TIT). This will increase the PD-18R’s thrust up to 196,13 kN / 20.000 kgf / 44.092 lbf, and the specific fuel consumption will be reduced by another 5 % (0,510 kg/kgf*h).
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The advantage of the geared turbofans is significant compared to the standard twin-shaft concept of the turbofan engines, on which the LPC’s speed of the rotation is conditioned and limited by the fan’s speed. The gearbox reduces the fan speed, enabling to fan to rotate at closer to its optimum speed, which is one third (in the case of Image.PW1000G engine) of the speed of the low-pressure turbine, so it is not tied to the N1 shaft’s (LPC+LPT) speed anymore. This way it works in a more efficient mode, increasing engine’s propulsion efficiency. By installing the gearbox in between the fan and the LPC, the geometry of the LPC and HPC could be totally redesigned and scaled-down. This enables the higher LPC’s and HPC’s rotation speeds, thus increasing the mass flow through the core, in the same time reducing the overall weight of the engine. In turn, this enables a design of the fan with a larger diameter, a higher BPR, which in turn increases the propulsion efficiency and reduces the fuel consumption. The fan operates most efficiently at lower rpms (lower noise levels and lower fan tip speeds at its greater diameter satisfy stress and supersonic flow limitations).
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…..JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-14 turbofan engine
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When they were creating the PD-14 engine (formerly known as the PS-12 and PS-14; PD-14’s gas-generator design from the PS-12 engine, which includes an 8-stage HPC and 2-stage HPT), the engineers from the very beginning relied on the domestic materials. It was clear that under no circumstances would Russian companies be given access to new materials of foreign manufacture. Here the leading role was played by the All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials - VIAM (ФГУП "ВИАМ" ГНЦ РФ), with the participation of which about 20 new materials were developed for this engine. But creating the material is half the battle. Sometimes Russian metals are superior in quality to foreign ones, but for their use in a civilian aircraft engine certification to international standards is necessary. Otherwise, the engine, no matter how good, will not be allowed to fly outside of Russia. The rules are very strict here, because we are talking about the safety of people. The same applies to the engine manufacturing process: companies in the industry require certification according to the standards of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). All this will force to raise the production culture, and it is necessary to re-equip the industry for a new technologies. The development of PD-14 engine itself was carried out according to a new, digital technology. Even the Image.Ilyushin.Il-76LL, reg. 76529, MSN 08-07, FN 073410308, flying laboratory, after several years of inactivity, needed to be equipped with a new equipment for the engine’s testing (engine PD-14 № 100-07). There was also work for unique CIAM stands, which allow to simulate flight conditions on the ground. The PD-14 engine received its Russian type certificate from country’s Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviatsiya) in October 2018. Validation of the certificate by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is scheduled for 2019.
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Image
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In the comparison with the basic JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 8,5:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–8HPC〧2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 41,0:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf, the more powerful version of the engine, JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14M, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 7,2:1; eng. architecture: 1F+4LPC–8HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 46,0:1, rated at 152,98 kN / 15.600 kgf / 34.392 lbf, has one more stage in LPC, higher OPR and SFC of 0,543 kg/kgf*h, compared to 0,526 kg/kgf*h for the PD-14 engine.
……
Besides the Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel».PD-14, two-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 1.900,0 mm / 74,8 in; BPR: 8,5:1; eng. architecture: 1F+3LPC–8HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: 41,0:1, rated at 137,29 kN / 14.000 kgf / 30.865 lbf and Image.PW1431G-JM, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.057,4 mm / 81,0 in; BPR: 12,0:1; gear ratio: 3,0625:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-3LPC–8HPC〧2HPT–3LPT), OPR: 50,0:1, rated at 140,44 kN / 14.321 kgf / 31.572 lbf, one more engine was once considered as the Image.JSC Irkut Corporation ( ПАО "Корпорация "Иркут" ).MC-21-300, Russian single-aisle, twinjet, airliner’s powerplant, and that was Image.AI-436T12 (previously known as the D-436ТH), three-shaft, high-bypass, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 81,5 in / 2.070,0 mm; BPR: 10,35:1; eng. architecture: 1F-6IPC=7HPC1HPT=1IPT-3LPT), OPR: 26,33:1, rated at 117,68 kN / 12.000 kgf / 26.455 lbf, that was supposed to be created on the basis of the AI-436T3 engine, the most perfect version of the Ivchenko-Progress.D-436, three-shaft, high-bypass turbofan engine at that time.
……
….Image
…..JSC Irkut Corporation МС-21-300 - MSN 21001, reg. 73051
……
...This engine was predicted to be produced jointly by the Russian factories Image.PJSC "UEC-Saturn" ( ПАО "ОДК -Сатурн" ) and Image.JSC "SPC Gas Turbine "Salut" ( АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения "Салют" ) on one side and the Ukrainian factories Image.Ivchenko-Progress ZMKB ( ЗМКБ «Прогрес» ім. О.Г.Івченка ) and Image.PJSC "Motor Sich" ( ВАТ "Мотор Січ" ) on the other …
……
Since the MC-21 aircraft, produced by Image.JSC Irkut Corporation ( ПАО "Корпорация "Иркут" ), was designed by the JSC A.S. Yakovlev Design Bureau ( ОАО «ОКБ имени А.С. Яковлева» ), I’d prefer to see it being named Image.Yakovlev Yak-242 ( Як-242 ) as it was, at first, and anticipated …
……
Mario


Great and informative post!! Thanks!!
I do not dream about movie stars, they must dream about me for I am real and they are not. - Alexander Popov
 
Wayfarer515
Posts: 810
Joined: Sat Dec 07, 2013 1:56 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Apr 17, 2019 4:08 pm

Another 35 MC-21s ordered by Aeroflot...but these ones will be powered by the PD-14

https://www.aex.ru/news/2019/4/17/196498/
 
Wayfarer515
Posts: 810
Joined: Sat Dec 07, 2013 1:56 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sun Apr 21, 2019 7:48 pm

First PD-14s have been transferred to Irkut:

https://ria.ru/amp/20190421/1552900709.html
 
User avatar
lollomz
Posts: 439
Joined: Thu Sep 15, 2005 6:21 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Mon Apr 22, 2019 8:14 am

I hope to see soon this beautiful plane in the skies, well done Aeroflot!
[url="http://www.diecastmodelaircraft.com/collection/Lollomz"]Image[/url]
 
CowAnon
Posts: 133
Joined: Fri Nov 03, 2017 12:03 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Jul 19, 2019 9:26 pm

mfranjic wrote:
At the MAKS-2015 international air show held at Zhukovsky International Airport ( ZIA ) it was already possible to see the prototype of a wide-chord fan blade made of carbon fiber, created in CIAM, the mass of which is 65 % of the mass of the hollow titanium blade used now. At the CIAM booth, one could also see the prototype of the gearbox which is supposed to be equipped with a Image.JSC «UEC-Aviadvigatel» PD-18R, ‘2,5’-shaft, high-bypass, geared, turbofan engine (fan diameter: 2.300,0 mm / 90,6 in; BPR: 10,0:1; gear ratio: _:1; eng. architecture: 1F-]G[-4LPC–9HPC2HPT–6LPT), OPR: _:1, modification. It is assumed to raise by 50 °K and the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine (TIT). This will increase the PD-18R’s thrust up to 196,13 kN / 20.000 kgf / 44.092 lbf, and the specific fuel consumption will be reduced by another 5 % (0,510 kg/kgf*h).

Mario

Thanks for the info, Mario. If Irkut ever builds a 250+ seat MC-21 stretch to battle a future Boeing NMA and Airbus A322, the PD-18R sounds like a worthy powerplant contender.

I just watched a 50-minute Russian episode from the show "Around the Corner" (with English subtitles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPJs1VoqbY0) about the Kuznetsov NK-93 "ducted propfan". It's one-sided, but the claims about the NK-93's performance are pretty striking. As the NK-93 has about the same thrust range as the PD-18R (and lower SFC), did Kuznetsov ever try to reduce the size of the NK-93's fans/ducts, so that the engine could be mounted to the MC-21 without scraping the runway?

In the same vein as that video, there's an article comparing the NK-93 favorably to the PD-14.

http://avia-pro.net/blog/budet-li-dviga ... hshe-nk-93
 
anrec80
Posts: 2759
Joined: Mon Jan 10, 2011 7:50 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Jul 20, 2019 6:38 am

CowAnon wrote:
I just watched a 50-minute Russian episode from the show "Around the Corner" (with English subtitles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPJs1VoqbY0) about the Kuznetsov NK-93 "ducted propfan". It's one-sided, but the claims about the NK-93's performance are pretty striking. As the NK-93 has about the same thrust range as the PD-18R (and lower SFC), did Kuznetsov ever try to reduce the size of the NK-93's fans/ducts, so that the engine could be mounted to the MC-21 without scraping the runway?

In the same vein as that video, there's an article comparing the NK-93 favorably to the PD-14.

http://avia-pro.net/blog/budet-li-dviga ... hshe-nk-93


Yes, NK-93 had all chances to be an amazing engine of its time. It was a geared turbofan, which hasn't shown to have much advantage over regular turbofans. It was tested in flight in 90s, though due to turbulent times - RIP. Unfortunately.

PD-14 is the engine of today NK-93's time was in 90s.
 
anrec80
Posts: 2759
Joined: Mon Jan 10, 2011 7:50 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Sat Jul 20, 2019 6:39 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
Another 35 MC-21s ordered by Aeroflot...but these ones will be powered by the PD-14

https://www.aex.ru/news/2019/4/17/196498/


Yepp. Thanks to all the sanctions!
 
Wayfarer515
Posts: 810
Joined: Sat Dec 07, 2013 1:56 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Aug 28, 2019 5:15 pm

UAC has presented today the first pax. cabin for the MC-21, it looks pretty amazing and with lots of room, good riddance for the sardine cans of Boeing and Airbus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY1Wr8-SJAU
 
ZKCIF
Posts: 412
Joined: Sat Oct 09, 2010 8:18 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Aug 28, 2019 6:17 pm

The largest overhead bins ever? Or am I seeing something?
 
WorldFlier
Posts: 389
Joined: Wed Aug 05, 2015 2:10 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Wed Aug 28, 2019 6:26 pm

ZKCIF wrote:
The largest overhead bins ever? Or am I seeing something?



Largest overhead bins in a single-aisle aircraft, it seems...based on the video where they put like 7 bags into one bin.
 
Amiga500
Posts: 2645
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2015 8:22 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Aug 29, 2019 10:34 am

Wayfarer515 wrote:
UAC has presented today the first pax. cabin for the MC-21, it looks pretty amazing and with lots of room, good riddance for the sardine cans of Boeing and Airbus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY1Wr8-SJAU


I know I'm like a broken record at this point - but this is pretty much what Boeing should be doing for their MoM. Then port the fuselage back down to NSA in the future. Indeed, I'd offer a whole product line based on that fuselage as its common centre.

797-100 ==> 180 seat fuse, 3000nm range wingset (A)
797-100ER ==> 180 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (B)
797-100LR ==> 180 seat fuse, 5500nm range wingset (C)

797-300 ==> 200 seat fuse, 2800nm range wingset (A)
797-300ER ==> 200 seat fuse, 4250nm range wingset (B)
797-300LR ==> 200 seat fuse, 5250nm range wingset (C)

797-500 ==> 230 seat fuse, 2300nm range wingset (A)
797-500ER ==> 230 seat fuse, 3900nm range wingset (B)
797-500LR ==> 230 seat fuse, 4900nm range wingset (C)

797-700 ==> 260 seat fuse, 3500nm range wingset (B)
797-700ER ==> 260 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (C)
797-700LR ==> 260 seat fuse, 5000nm range wingset (D)


Common cockpit, mostly common systems. Different empennage, different undercarriage. Probably 2 fan diameters with common core for the range.

Ranges are whatever you get from the wing and fuel load and are not requirements in of themselves. Broad brush! Capacities are sardine single-class.


If Boeing are going to have Embraer do a 5AB, then the -100 gets dropped. Let that product fill the market to <200 seats.
 
T4thH
Posts: 1075
Joined: Thu Jun 06, 2019 11:17 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Aug 29, 2019 10:57 am

As MAKS is ongoing, there have been some orders.
5x MOU for the MC21 by Yakutia.(Russia)
10x MOU for the MC21 by Bek Air (Kazakhstan)
5x MOU by UFO (unidentified customer)
https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/maks-yakutia-among-three-carriers-to-sign-for-mc-21-460544/
 
Wayfarer515
Posts: 810
Joined: Sat Dec 07, 2013 1:56 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Aug 29, 2019 4:03 pm

Interview with UAC director Yuri Slyusar from inside the aircraft itself, very nice demonstration of the ample aisle space in this bird and the outstanding luggage space. He says they will not repeat the mistakes made with the SSJ100 and will initially focus on the Russian market before venturing outside without the appropriate technical support and spare parts in place.

https://tvzvezda.ru/news/vstrane_i_mire/content/20198281916-zId7b.html/player/
 
anrec80
Posts: 2759
Joined: Mon Jan 10, 2011 7:50 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Thu Aug 29, 2019 5:02 pm

Amiga500 wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
UAC has presented today the first pax. cabin for the MC-21, it looks pretty amazing and with lots of room, good riddance for the sardine cans of Boeing and Airbus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY1Wr8-SJAU


I know I'm like a broken record at this point - but this is pretty much what Boeing should be doing for their MoM. Then port the fuselage back down to NSA in the future. Indeed, I'd offer a whole product line based on that fuselage as its common centre.

797-100 ==> 180 seat fuse, 3000nm range wingset (A)
797-100ER ==> 180 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (B)
797-100LR ==> 180 seat fuse, 5500nm range wingset (C)

797-300 ==> 200 seat fuse, 2800nm range wingset (A)
797-300ER ==> 200 seat fuse, 4250nm range wingset (B)
797-300LR ==> 200 seat fuse, 5250nm range wingset (C)

797-500 ==> 230 seat fuse, 2300nm range wingset (A)
797-500ER ==> 230 seat fuse, 3900nm range wingset (B)
797-500LR ==> 230 seat fuse, 4900nm range wingset (C)

797-700 ==> 260 seat fuse, 3500nm range wingset (B)
797-700ER ==> 260 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (C)
797-700LR ==> 260 seat fuse, 5000nm range wingset (D)


Common cockpit, mostly common systems. Different empennage, different undercarriage. Probably 2 fan diameters with common core for the range.

Ranges are whatever you get from the wing and fuel load and are not requirements in of themselves. Broad brush! Capacities are sardine single-class.


If Boeing are going to have Embraer do a 5AB, then the -100 gets dropped. Let that product fill the market to <200 seats.


This is not unlike what UAC is planning. Next in MS-21 lineup - MS-21-400 with LR variant, slightly bigger than A321. Planned to be out once more powerful 16-17T engines are available.
 
AleksW
Posts: 103
Joined: Thu Jun 08, 2017 2:18 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Aug 30, 2019 11:01 am

anrec80 wrote:
Amiga500 wrote:
Wayfarer515 wrote:
UAC has presented today the first pax. cabin for the MC-21, it looks pretty amazing and with lots of room, good riddance for the sardine cans of Boeing and Airbus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oY1Wr8-SJAU


I know I'm like a broken record at this point - but this is pretty much what Boeing should be doing for their MoM. Then port the fuselage back down to NSA in the future. Indeed, I'd offer a whole product line based on that fuselage as its common centre.

797-100 ==> 180 seat fuse, 3000nm range wingset (A)
797-100ER ==> 180 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (B)
797-100LR ==> 180 seat fuse, 5500nm range wingset (C)

797-300 ==> 200 seat fuse, 2800nm range wingset (A)
797-300ER ==> 200 seat fuse, 4250nm range wingset (B)
797-300LR ==> 200 seat fuse, 5250nm range wingset (C)

797-500 ==> 230 seat fuse, 2300nm range wingset (A)
797-500ER ==> 230 seat fuse, 3900nm range wingset (B)
797-500LR ==> 230 seat fuse, 4900nm range wingset (C)

797-700 ==> 260 seat fuse, 3500nm range wingset (B)
797-700ER ==> 260 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (C)
797-700LR ==> 260 seat fuse, 5000nm range wingset (D)


Common cockpit, mostly common systems. Different empennage, different undercarriage. Probably 2 fan diameters with common core for the range.

Ranges are whatever you get from the wing and fuel load and are not requirements in of themselves. Broad brush! Capacities are sardine single-class.


If Boeing are going to have Embraer do a 5AB, then the -100 gets dropped. Let that product fill the market to <200 seats.


This is not unlike what UAC is planning. Next in MS-21 lineup - MS-21-400 with LR variant, slightly bigger than A321. Planned to be out once more powerful 16-17T engines are available.

I'm eager to see the MS-21-400 version. Slightly wider body and a bit longer than the A321. Perfect!!!
I'm guessing that for the LR version more power would be needed, but at the same time the A321LR / XLR is nearly 100 tonnes and still has the usual CFM Leap.
 
User avatar
Matt6461
Posts: 2977
Joined: Wed Oct 16, 2013 9:36 pm

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Aug 30, 2019 3:07 pm

AleksW wrote:
anrec80 wrote:
Amiga500 wrote:

I know I'm like a broken record at this point - but this is pretty much what Boeing should be doing for their MoM. Then port the fuselage back down to NSA in the future. Indeed, I'd offer a whole product line based on that fuselage as its common centre.

797-100 ==> 180 seat fuse, 3000nm range wingset (A)
797-100ER ==> 180 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (B)
797-100LR ==> 180 seat fuse, 5500nm range wingset (C)

797-300 ==> 200 seat fuse, 2800nm range wingset (A)
797-300ER ==> 200 seat fuse, 4250nm range wingset (B)
797-300LR ==> 200 seat fuse, 5250nm range wingset (C)

797-500 ==> 230 seat fuse, 2300nm range wingset (A)
797-500ER ==> 230 seat fuse, 3900nm range wingset (B)
797-500LR ==> 230 seat fuse, 4900nm range wingset (C)

797-700 ==> 260 seat fuse, 3500nm range wingset (B)
797-700ER ==> 260 seat fuse, 4500nm range wingset (C)
797-700LR ==> 260 seat fuse, 5000nm range wingset (D)


Common cockpit, mostly common systems. Different empennage, different undercarriage. Probably 2 fan diameters with common core for the range.

Ranges are whatever you get from the wing and fuel load and are not requirements in of themselves. Broad brush! Capacities are sardine single-class.


If Boeing are going to have Embraer do a 5AB, then the -100 gets dropped. Let that product fill the market to <200 seats.


This is not unlike what UAC is planning. Next in MS-21 lineup - MS-21-400 with LR variant, slightly bigger than A321. Planned to be out once more powerful 16-17T engines are available.

I'm eager to see the MS-21-400 version. Slightly wider body and a bit longer than the A321. Perfect!!!
I'm guessing that for the LR version more power would be needed, but at the same time the A321LR / XLR is nearly 100 tonnes and still has the usual CFM Leap.


Me too. I'm hoping for a big wingtip treatment, maybe a folding wing extension?
 
anrec80
Posts: 2759
Joined: Mon Jan 10, 2011 7:50 am

Re: MC-21 Development Thread

Fri Aug 30, 2019 4:27 pm

Matt6461 wrote:

Me too. I'm hoping for a big wingtip treatment, maybe a folding wing extension?


Folding extension is a bit overkill for a narrow body - it was needed for 77X to fit into standard 80m box. As for some sort of wingtip device - it’s necessary for a longer range IMHO. Though doesn’t necessarily provide any efficiency improvement on shorter hops.

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