CKerr1983
Topic Author
Posts: 3
Joined: Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:06 pm

Heads down V Heads up

Thu Oct 10, 2019 12:22 pm

Dear all
I’m researching the relationship between the Primary flight display on board aircraft and situational awareness of the crew for a Human Factors project.
I’m particularly interested in the taxi phase of flight, why attention seems to slip more after the landing phase when taxiing to stand.
What does the Flight deck workload look like departure versus arrival? Are you more engaged with the systems on departure over arrival? Are the tasks very different and does the interaction between crew and PFD change between departure and arrival? Is the mentality or expectation different? Does familiarity with airfield or weather play a part? Any ideas why a Buisness Jet crew May be more likely to take an incorrect route then a commercial crew? Any opinions on HUD in regard to taxi?
Thanks
 
VSMUT
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Thu Oct 10, 2019 5:31 pm

CKerr1983 wrote:
What does the Flight deck workload look like departure versus arrival? Are you more engaged with the systems on departure over arrival? Are the tasks very different and does the interaction between crew and PFD change between departure and arrival? Is the mentality or expectation different? Does familiarity with airfield or weather play a part?


I assume you mean on the ground only:
Taxiing out is always pretty calm, there is plenty of time to get stuff done.

After landing everything always feels rushed. You will be finding your bearings, receiving taxi instructions, do the after landing flows and looking up the route on the Jeppessen charts while monitoring the captain (ergo making sure he takes the right turns) and looking out for other traffic all at once. It is not uncommon at small airports to have a taxi-in of only 2 or 3 minutes.


CKerr1983 wrote:
Any ideas why a Buisness Jet crew May be more likely to take an incorrect route then a commercial crew?


Have only done ACMI/charter stuff, not business jets, but like them we often go to unfamiliar airports. Finding your way is always going to be harder when you don't know the taxiways by hard. Often we don't even know where we are going to park, so something as simple as which side to vacate the runway is going to be unknown.


CKerr1983 wrote:
Any opinions on HUD in regard to taxi?


Never tried one, but it seems pretty pointless. Doesn't provide any information that is of any use.
 
CKerr1983
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Thu Oct 10, 2019 7:21 pm

Thank you. Very helpful
 
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Starlionblue
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Fri Oct 11, 2019 12:24 am

One factor is simply human nature. On taxi out the flight is ahead of you. On taxi in you're "done" with that flight, and often the workday. So the mind wanders forward to the cozy bed, the meal, or whatever you have planned for the rest of the day. Compare with a commuter going to work and a commuter going home. Which one is more likely to be dozing on the train?

- Workload. As VSMUT says taxi out tends to be pretty calm. Taxi in tends to feel more rushed, especially just after vacating. On taxi out you'll get your taxi route, at least the first bits, then release the park brake. On taxi in you might not know your stand, and thus probable taxi route, until you go to ground frequency.
- Systems. On departure most of the stuff is done before taxi. On arrival there's more stuff to do, or at least it feels like it. It can in many cases be good practice to wait a bit with after landing flow and after landing checklist until you've figured out your taxi route and are on your way.
- Interaction with PFD. There isn't much. Mostly the ground speed display, which is on the ND anyway.
- Familiarity and weather. Familiarity is huge. At home port you know the taxiways by heart. Flying to a brand new destination where none of the flight crew have been requires more concentration. - Weather. It plays a part mainly in 2 cases: low visibility (taxi slowly) and slippery surfaces (taxi slowly). If you count darkness as "weather" it also matters of course.
- Business jet vs commercial. I don't think there should be a difference in propensity to take a wrong turn, apart from unfamiliarity since they tend not to have established routes.
- HUD. It does provide taxiway information, but it isn't like you can't see the signs. Far more useful is a moving taxiway map on the ND. Some biz jets have synthetic vision systems, and that seems very useful in the dark and poor viz.

As is probably obvious, good CRM is for only one the PM to be heads down during taxi. Example: During the the flight control check the PF moves the controls, but only the PM looks at the flight control page. The PF will typically be taxiing so must keep his/her attention outside. The PF will of course glance at the ground speed display periodically, and the moving map or chart, but primary focus should be outside.
"There are no stupid questions, but there are a lot of inquisitive idiots." - John Ringo
 
GalaxyFlyer
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Fri Oct 11, 2019 2:55 am

All things you learn to create a mental picture of the plane’s flight path are magically simple with a HUD. Visual approaches are simple, ILS transition from “the gauges” to the runway instantaneous. Night visual with a PAPI is a piece of cake. Add in EVS, and you can see those storms that don’t have enough rain to show on radar. HUD doesn’t come into play for taxiiing other than spotting the marshaller in the EVS.

We had own ship displayed on the charts on the 15” LCD screens making taxiing easier. We had a memory button, when clear of the runway, the lower center screen turned into the taxi chart the size of a laptop. Helped a lot, as long as the ground controller didn’t fire off 5 taxiways with a hold short in rapid succession.

GF
 
CKerr1983
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Fri Oct 11, 2019 1:29 pm

Excellent information thank you Sir
 
Woodreau
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Fri Oct 11, 2019 8:42 pm

The only time things get busy on departure is if there is a reroute or issues getting performance numbers.

On the ground, you always have the ability to make more time. Whenever I’m taxiing and I find the other crewmember getting task saturated, I just taxi slower or ask him to ask ground for a place to hold while we sort things out.

The only thing I use from the PFD or HUD is the aircraft’s ground speed. There is no other information that is useful from the instruments. The primary instrument while taxiing is outside. It’s like asking what instrument do you use when you drive a car? Do you stare at your speedometer? No you’re looking outside and glancing at your speedometer every now and then. Every so often refer to your moving map if you’re using that for navigation. The airplane is no different.
Bonus animus sit, ab experientia. Quod salvatum fuerit de malis usu venit judicium.
 
garf25
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Re: Heads down V Heads up

Sat Oct 12, 2019 7:11 pm

I would definately research the phenomenon called 'Closer the goal....the stronger the pull'.
A very real human trait that stems from our ape evolution.....the closer you are to a goal, the more agitated you become without realising. Read about it and test it out in real life, it's fascinating.

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