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What else is an ATPL pilot allowed to fly?

Posted: Sat Apr 17, 2021 5:38 am
by hitower3
Hello!

Let's take an ATPL pilot with a A320 type rating. As far as I know, this license will allow the holder to fly all A320 series jets, obviously. But what types of aircraft are implicitly included, so they can be flown without any additional license/type rating/mandatory training?

Single engine pistons? (I think yes)
Multi engine pistons? (Hey let's jump on that DC-6!)
Turboprops?
Business jets?
Sailplanes?

I am looking forward to read your insights!
Hendric

Re: What else is an ATPL pilot allowed to fly?

Posted: Sat Apr 17, 2021 7:40 am
by VSMUT
hitower3 wrote:
Hello!

Let's take an ATPL pilot with a A320 type rating. As far as I know, this license will allow the holder to fly all A320 series jets, obviously. But what types of aircraft are implicitly included, so they can be flown without any additional license/type rating/mandatory training?

Single engine pistons? (I think yes)
Multi engine pistons? (Hey let's jump on that DC-6!)
Turboprops?
Business jets?
Sailplanes?

I am looking forward to read your insights!
Hendric


Since you didn't state where, under EASA rules (and it is by no means exhaustive, it is a big subject in itself):
Each type requires a class or type rating. A pilot can only fly what he holds a rating for. If he only has an A320 rating, he can only fly an A320.

A type rating is required for all turbine (jet and turboprop) aircraft and aircraft with a weight limit over 5700 kg. Type ratings are generally for one entire type, (like all ATRs), but additional training can be required to fly certain variants (like the ATR -600 series).

Class ratings are more open and cover several types, like "all" single engine piston aircraft: Single engine pistons require a single engine piston [SEP] class rating, which comes in both land [SEP(L)] and sea [SEP(S)] variants. Multi engine pistons [MEP] also have a class rating, and also come in land [MEP(L)] and sea [MEP(S)] versions. There is additional training required for aircraft with tail wheels.

Helicopters are completely separate. ULs have historically been separate and required a light aircraft pilots license [LAPL], but authorities are slowly beginning to come round to accepting that ordinary pilots can fly some UL aircraft as well. You are now allowed to count UL hours as flying time on regular aircraft. Business jets count as any ordinary aircraft.

The pilot is also limited to flying aircraft registered where he is licensed. FAA pilots can fly US registered aircraft, pilots with EU licenses can fly in all aircraft registered in the EU. Many countries make validations easy for EU or US pilots to convert to, but the EU and US don't really recognize any other licenses without significant additional training.

Re: What else is an ATPL pilot allowed to fly?

Posted: Sat Apr 17, 2021 8:33 am
by Starlionblue
To expand on VSMUT's post, you can think of it hierarchically. At the top is Category, then Class, then Type Rating. I'm going to use the FAA system, but as noted there are myriad national variations.

A Class of aircraft is a broad category.
- Airplane, which are fixed-wing aircraft, e.g. Cessna 172, Boeing 747, Cessna Caravan on floats.
- Rotorcraft, which are helicopters.
- Powered Lift, which are aircraft that derive lift from thrust, e.g. V-22 Osprey and Harrier.
- Glider.
- Lighter than air, which are airships and balloons.
- Powered parachute, which use inflatable parafoils for lift.
- Weight-shift-control, which are things like hang gliders and ultralight trikes.

With a category, there are classes. For example in the airplane category, there are classes for single engine land, single engine sea, multi engine land and multi engine sea.

A basic class license allows you to pilot anything within that category which does not exceed a certain weight/complexity. E.g. an airplane single-engine land private pilot license allows you to pilot any single engine land airplane under 12500lb max weight, with some exceptions.

A specific type rating is required for aircraft beyond a certain weight/complexity. To pilot an A320, you need an airplane multi-engine land license and an A320 type rating. If you need to convert to a 737, you need a 737 type rating, but you use the same licenses. If you need to convert to a Chinook, you need a rotorcraft multi engine license and a Chinook type rating.

In many other countries, you need to be endorsed on any aircraft type, even under 12500lb. Aircraft under 12500lb do not require a type rating, however.

Re: What else is an ATPL pilot allowed to fly?

Posted: Sat Apr 17, 2021 1:21 pm
by Woodreau
There are some other requirements as well.

A pilot can’t carry any passengers unless they have logged 3 landings in category and class within the previous 90 days.

All jets require a type rating.

Anything over 12,500lbs generally require a type rating.

Sailplanes are a different category.

Re: What else is an ATPL pilot allowed to fly?

Posted: Sat Apr 17, 2021 1:39 pm
by hitower3
Thanks to all of you for your insights!
Hendric