First off there are visual runways, non-precision instrument runways, and precision instrument runways.
Visual runways have the runway number at each end which corresponds to the magnetic heading of the runway rounded to the nearest 10. Most also have centerline markings (dashed white line down the center).
Non-precision instrument runways have all the markings of a visual runway and also have aiming point markings which consist of a solid white stripe on each side of the centerline 1000' from the threshold. These runways also have threshold markings which are the collection of strips at the end of the runway, varying in number and width according to the width of the runway.
Precision instrumetn runways have all the markings of a non-precision instrument runway and also have touchdown zone markings which consist of three strips on each side of the centerline 500' from the threshold, then two stripes on each side 500' after teh aiming point markings, followed by a single stripe on each side of the centerline 500' beyond that. The number of double and single stripes varies according to runway length, but are always spaced 500' apart.
Some runways have side stripes (white stripes along the edges of the runway) to provide contrast with surrounding terrain. Sometimes the side strip is supplemented with yellow, diagonal shoulder markings denoting unusable pavement on the runway edges.
When there is a blast pad/stopway on the end of a runway, this section is marked with yellow chevrons pointing to the threshold marking the pavement as unusable. Usable and unusable pavement is seperated by a 3 foot wide demarcation bar across the runway. If there is a displaced threshold, the centerline is marked with a string of white arrows pointing toward the threshold bar, which is a 10 foot wide stripe across the runway at the beginning of the pavement usuable for landing, this bar is then followed by normal runway markings for that type of runway.
If a runway is closed, it is marked with a large "X" at each end and usually along the runway also.